Conference Paper

Enhanced teleoperation for D&D

Nucl. Eng. Div., Argonne Nat. Lab., IL, USA
DOI: 10.1109/ROBOT.2004.1308836 Conference: Robotics and Automation, 2004. Proceedings. ICRA '04. 2004 IEEE International Conference on, Volume: 4
Source: IEEE Xplore

ABSTRACT Remote systems are essential for reducing risk to human workers from hazardous radiation and difficult work environments, while improving productivity and reducing costs. The major drawback of currently available remote manipulator systems is that teleoperation is slow and imprecise. The presented work focuses on enhancing remote operation of tools for D&D tasks by introducing teleautonomy and telecollaboration. In teleautonomy, the robot performs a given task autonomously, while the human operator intervenes in the process as a supervisor. In telecollaboration, the human operator is passively constrained by a virtual fixture, but is responsible for the motion. This work, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP), builds on a reactive, agent-based control architecture and robot control technology.

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    ABSTRACT: Future space explorations necessitate manipulation of space structures in support of extra vehicular activities or extraterrestrial resource exploitation. In these tasks robots are expected to assist or replace human crew to alleviate human risk and enhance task performance. However due to the vastly unstructured and unpredictable environmental conditions, automation of robotic task is virtually impossible and thus teleoperation is expected to be employed. However teleoperation is extremely slow and inefficient. To improve task efficiency of teleoperation, this work introduces semi-autonomous telerobotic operation technology. Key technological innovations include implementation of reactive agent based robotic architecture and enhanced operator interface that renders virtual fixture.
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    ABSTRACT: Human-Machine Collaborative Systems (HMCSs) are able to sense human operator intent and provide context- appropriate assistance to improve performance in applications ranging from space exploration to minimally invasive surgery. The underlying technology in our HMCSs is the virtual fix- ture. Virtual fixtures are software-generated force and pos ition signals applied to human operators in order to improve the safety, accuracy, and speed of robot-assisted manipulation tasks. They are effective and intuitive because they capitalize on both the accuracy of robotic systems and the intelligence of human operators. In this position paper, we describe our HMCS technology and its potential for application in operational tasks in space. I. HUMAN-MACHINE COLLABORATIVE SYSTEMS The goal of Human-Machine Collaborative Systems (HMCS) project is to investigate human-machine cooperative execution of tool-based manipulation activities. The motiva- tion for collaborative systems is based on evidence suggesting that humans operating in collaboration with robotic mech- anisms can take advantage of robotic speed and precision, but avoid the difficulties of full autonomy by retaining the human "in the loop" for essential decision making and/or physical guidance (14). Our previous work on HMCS has aimed at microsurgery (3), minimally invasive surgery (1), cell manipulation (6) and several fine-scale manufacturing tasks (7), but the basic principles apply broadly in many domains. In this paper, we explore possible applications in space.
    To Boldly Go Where No Human-Robot Team Has Gone Before, Papers from the 2006 AAAI Spring Symposium, Technical Report SS-06-07, Stanford, California, USA, March 27-29, 2006; 01/2006
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    ABSTRACT: This dissertation addresses the development of a telemanipulation system using intelligent mapping from a haptic user interface to a remote manipulator to assist in maximizing the manipulation capabilities of persons with disabilities. This mapping, referred to as assistance function, is determined on the basis of environmental model or real-time sensory data to guide the motion of a telerobotic manipulator while performing a given task. Human input is enhanced rather than superseded by the computer. This is particularly useful when the user has restricted range of movements due to certain disabilities such as muscular dystrophy, a stroke, or any form of pathological tremor. In telemanipulation system, assistance of variable position/velocity mapping or virtual fixture can improve manipulation capability and dexterity. Conventionally, these assistances are based on the environment information, without knowing user's motion intention. In this dissertation, user's motion intention is combined with real-time environment information for applying appropriate assistance. If the current task is following a path, a virtual fixture orthogonal to the path is applied. Similarly, if the task is to align the end-effector with a target, an attractive force field is generated. In order to successfully recognize user's motion intention, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) is developed. Also this dissertation describes the HMM based skill learning and its application in a motion therapy system in which motion along a labyrinth is controlled using a haptic interface. Two persons with disabilities on upper limb are trained using this virtual therapist. The performance measures before and after the therapy training, including the smoothness of the trajectory, distance ratio, time taken, tremor and impact forces are presented. The results demonstrate that the forms of assistance provided reduced the execution times and increased the performance of the chosen tasks for the disabled individuals. In addition, these results suggest that the introduction of the haptic rendering capabilities, including the force feedback, offers special benefit to motion-impaired users by augmenting their performance on job related tasks.

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May 21, 2014