The organic food sales have been increasing during the recent years. It has been hypothesised that organically grown fruits are healthier based on their higher content of phytochemicals. However, data on the bioavailability of phytochemicals from organically or conventionally produced plant foods are scarce.
Two human intervention studies were performed to compare the bioavailability of polyphenols in healthy men after ingestion of apples from different farming systems. The administered apples were grown organically and conventionally under defined conditions and characterised regarding their polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity. No significant differences in the polyphenol content and the antioxidant capacity from the organic and conventional farming system were observed.
In the short-term intervention study, six men consumed either organically or conventionally produced apples in a randomized cross-over study. After intake of 1 kg apples, phloretin (C (max) 13 + or - 5 nmol/l, t (max) 1.7 + or - 1.2 h) and coumaric acid (C (max )35 + or - 12 nmol/l, t (max) 3.0 + or - 0.8 h) plasma concentrations increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in both intervention groups, without differences between the two farming systems. In the long-term intervention study, 43 healthy volunteers consumed organically or conventionally produced apples (500 g/day; 4 weeks) or no apples in a double-blind, randomized intervention study. In this study, 24 h after the last dosing regime, the apple intake did not result in increasing polyphenol concentrations in plasma and urine compared to the control group suggesting no accumulation of apple polyphenols or degradation products in humans.
Our study suggests that the two farming systems (organic/conventional) do not result in differences in the bioavailability of apple polyphenols.
"After overnight fasting, all the subjects consumed 300 mL of Golden Delicious AJ, tap water, or Catarina AJ, and a blood sample was collected just before (baseline) and 1 hour after drinking. This protocol was chosen based on the maximal antioxidant capacity and phenolic concentration in serum 1 hour after intake of fruit or juice        . The participants served as their own control because we compared all the data obtained after either AJ or water consumption with the respective baseline values. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: It is hypothesized that apples of 2 Brazilian cultivars with different content of sugars and antioxidant compounds promote similar effects on the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in human serum after acute intake. Nine healthy women ingested 300 mL of Golden Delicious or Catarina apple juice (AJ) or water, and blood samples were collected before and 1 hour after intake. After intake of both AJ, a similar and significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity and ascorbic and uric acid levels and a significant decrease in serum lipid peroxidation was observed. The increase in serum antioxidant capacity after consumption of both AJ was correlated directly with the uric acid levels and inversely with serum lipid peroxidation. In summary, the acute intake of AJ of 2 cultivars promoted a similar effect on the antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation in human blood serum.
Nutrition research 03/2012; 32(3):229-32. DOI:10.1016/j.nutres.2011.12.008 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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