Predictors of completion axillary lymph node dissection in patients with immunohistochemical metastases to the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer.
ABSTRACT Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in patients with immunohistochemistry (IHC)-determined metastases to the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is controversial. The goal of this study was to examine factors associated with ALND in IHC-only patients.
Retrospective review of an institutional SLN database from July 1997 to July 2003 was performed. We compared sociodemographic, pathologic, and therapeutic variables between IHC-only patients who had SLN biopsy alone and those that had ALND.
Our study group consisted of 171 patients with IHC-only metastases to the SLN. Young age, estrogen receptor negative status, high Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center nomogram score, and chemotherapy were associated with ALND. Among patients who had ALND (n = 95), 18% had a positive non-SLN. Rates of systemic therapy were similar between those with and without positive non-SLNs at ALND. No axillary recurrences were observed in this series with a median follow-up of 6.4 years. The percentage of patients who were recurrence-free after 5 years was 97% (95% confidence interval, 92.1-98.6).
On the basis of our findings and the lack of prospective randomized data, the practice of selectively limiting ALND to IHC-only patients thought to be at high risk and to patients for whom the identification of additional positive nodes may change systemic therapy recommendations seems to be a safe and reasonable approach.
SourceAvailable from: Attila Marcell Szász[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to correlate various primary tumor characteristics with lymph node status, to examine sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis size and non-SLN axillary involvement, to look for a cut-off size/number value possibly predicting additional axillary involvement with more accuracy and to examine the relationship of SLN metastasis size to overall survival. Of 301 patients who underwent SLN biopsy, 75 had positive SLNs. The size of the metastases was measured. For different size categories, association with the prevalence of non-SLN metastases was assessed. Associations between metastasis size and tumor characteristics and overall survival (OS) were studied. The prevalence of axillary lymph node (ALN) involvement was not significantly different between cases with micrometastasis or macrometastasis in SLNs (p = 0.124). However, for metastases larger than 6, 7, and 8 mm, the prevalence of ALN involvement was significantly higher (p = 0.046, 0.022, and 0.025). OS was significantly lower in SLN-positive than in SLN-negative cases (p = 0.0375). Primary tumor size larger than 20 mm was associated with a significantly higher incidence of SLN metastasis (p < 0.001), and primary tumor size over 26 mm was associated with additional positive non-SLN (p < 0.001). Higher mitotic index (≥7) in primary tumors was significantly (p < 0.001) associated with ALN involvement in SLN-positive cases, whereas higher Ki67 labeling index was not significantly correlated with SLN or ALN involvement. Lymphovascular invasion (LVI) in primary tumors was significantly correlated with SLN positivity (p < 0.001) but not with further ALN involvement or OS. Tumor size and LVI are predictive for SLN metastasis. Mitotic index, primary tumor size, and larger volume SLN involvement are determinants of further ALN involvement. SLN metastasis size over 6 mm is a strong predictor of further axillary involvement. OS is shorter in the presence of positive SLN.Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 05/2014; DOI:10.1007/s00428-014-1579-5 · 2.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Although the current American Joint Commission on Cancer (AJCC) staging system is the most widely used classification scheme for the prognostication of breast cancer, recent work has offered the potential for refinement of this system. Incorporation of grade, lymphovascular invasion, and various biomarkers have all been proposed as options for improvement of primary tumor staging. In addition, there remains controversy regarding optimal staging of lymph node metastases, as the value isolated tumor cells and micrometastases, lymph node ratio, and the value of internal mammary nodes remain at issue. Finally, nuances about the location and number of distant metastases, and the amount of circulating tumor cells may differentiate patients within Stage IV disease. This review highlights recent advances in breast cancer research that may offer insight into potential ways that the AJCC staging system can be improved.Current Breast Cancer Reports 06/2011; 3(2). DOI:10.1007/s12609-011-0041-9
Dataset: The value of touch