Mobilization studies in complement-deficient mice reveal that optimal AMD3100 mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells depends on complement cascade activation by AMD3100-stimulated granulocytes.
ABSTRACT We reported that complement cascade (CC) becomes activated in bone marrow (BM) during mobilization of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) induced by granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) and C5 cleavage has an important function in optimal egress of HSPCs. In this work, we explored whether CC is involved in mobilization of HSPCs induced by the CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100. To address this question, we performed mobilization studies in mice that display a defect in the activation of the proximal steps of CC (Rag(-/-), severe combined immune deficient (SCID), C2.Cfb(-/-)) as well as in mice that do not activate the distal steps of CC (C5(-/-)). We noticed that proximal CC activation-deficient mice (above C5 level), in contrast to distal step CC activation-deficient C5(-/-) ones, mobilize normally in response to AMD3100 administration. We hypothesized that this discrepancy in mobilization could be explained by AMD3100-activating C5 in Rag(-/-), SCID, and C2.Cfb(-/-) animals in a non-canonical mechanism involving activated granulocytes. To support this, granulocytes (i) first egress from BM and (ii) secrete several proteases that cleave/activate C5 in response to AMD3100. We conclude that AMD3100-directed mobilization of HSPCs, similarly to G-CSF-induced mobilization, depends on activation of CC; however, in contrast to G-CSF, AMD3100 activates the distal steps of CC directly at the C5 level. Overall, these data support that C5 cleavage fragments and distal steps of CC activation are required for optimal mobilization of HSPCs.
Article: Granulocyte-derived cationic Peptide enhances homing and engraftment of bone marrow stem cells after transplantation.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Current strategies to accelerate hematopoietic reconstitution after transplantation include transplantation of greater numbers of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs) or ex vivo expansion of harvested HSPCs before transplant. However, the number of cells available for transplantation is usually low, and strategies to expand HSPCs and maintain equivalent engraftment capability ex vivo are limited. We noted that activated granulocyte-derived cationic peptides positively primed responsiveness of HSPCs to a CXCL12 gradient. Accordingly, we noted that accelerated homing/engraftment of β-defensin-2, a well-known antimicrobial cationic peptide, primed bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNCs) compared to normal BMNCs after transplantation into lethally irradiated recipients. We envision that small cationic peptides, which primarily possess antimicrobial functions and are harmless to mammalian cells, could be applied to prime HSPCs before transplantation. This novel approach would be particularly important in cord blood transplantation, where the number of HSPCs available for transplantation is usually limited.Laboratory animal research. 06/2011; 27(2):133-40.