Once-Daily Atazanavir/Ritonavir Compared With Twice-Daily Lopinavir/Ritonavir, Each in Combination With Tenofovir and Emtricitabine, for Management of Antiretroviral-Naive HIV-1-Infected Patients: 96-Week Efficacy and Safety Results of the CASTLE Study
ABSTRACT Once-daily atazanavir/ritonavir demonstrated similar antiviral efficacy to twice-daily lopinavir/ritonavir over 48 weeks, with less gastrointestinal disturbance and a better lipid profile, in treatment-naive patients.
International, multicenter, open-label, 96-week noninferiority randomized trial of atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg once daily vs lopinavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg twice daily, each in combination with fixed-dose tenofovir/emtricitabine 300/200 mg once daily, in antiretroviral-naive, HIV-1-infected patients. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with HIV RNA <50 copies/mL at 48 weeks. Results through 96 weeks are reported.
Of 883 patients enrolled, 440 were randomized to atazanavir/ritonavir and 443 to lopinavir/ritonavir. At week 96, more patients receiving atazanavir/ritonavir achieved HIV RNA <50 copies/mL (74% vs 68%, P < 0.05) in the intent-to-treat analysis. On both regimens, 7% of subjects were virologic failures by 96 weeks. Bilirubin-associated disorders were greater in patients taking atazanavir/ritonavir. Treatment-related gastrointestinal adverse events were greater in patients taking lopinavir/ritonavir. Mean changes from baseline in fasting total cholesterol, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triglycerides at week 96 were significantly higher with lopinavir/ritonavir (P < 0.0001).
Noninferiority of atazanavir/ritonavir to lopinavir/ritonavir was confirmed at 96 weeks. Atazanavir/ritonavir had a better lipid profile and fewer gastrointestinal adverse events than lopinavir/ritonavir.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Victoria Wirtz, May 01, 2014
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Article: HIV medication-based urolithiasis[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Drug-induced renal calculi represent 1-2% of all renal calculi. In the last decade, drugs used for the treatment of HIV-infected patients have become the most frequent cause of drug-containing urinary calculi. Among these agents, protease inhibitors (PIs) are well known to induce kidney stones, especially indinavir and atazanavir, and more recently darunavir. Urolithiasis attributable to other PIs has also been reported in clinical cases such as those during non-PI use. Antiretroviral drug-induced calculi deserve consideration because most of them are potentially preventable. This article summarizes the diagnosis, epidemiology, prevention and management of antiretroviral drug-induced urolithiasis.04/2014; 7(2):121-6. DOI:10.1093/ckj/sfu008
Article: Atazanavir nephrotoxicity[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Atazanavir is commonly used as one of the key drugs in combination antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). However, atazanavir has the potential to yield its crystalline precipitation in urine and renal interstitial tissues, leading to crystalluria, urolithiasis, acute kidney injury (AKI) or chronic kidney disease (CKD). In epidemiological studies, atazanavir/ritonavir alone or in combination with tenofovir has been associated with increased risk of progression to CKD. However, renal biopsies were not provided in these studies. Case reports showing an association between atazanavir use and tubulointerstitial nephritis among HIV-infected individuals provide clues as to the potential causes of atazanavir nephrotoxicity. We now review atazanavir-related kidney disease including urolithiasis, renal dysfunction and interstitial nephritis and illustrate the review with a further case of atazanavir-associated kidney injury with sequential renal biopsies. There are two forms of atazanavir-associated tubulointerstitial nephritis: acute tubulointerstitial nephritis that may develop AKI rapidly (in weeks) after initiation of atazanavir, and chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis that may develop progressive CKD slowly (in years) with granuloma and intrarenal precipitation of atazanavir crystals as well as crystalluria. Caution should be exercised when prescribing atazanavir to patients at high risk of CKD, and therapy should be reevaluated if renal function deteriorates, especially associated with crystalluria and hematuria.04/2015; 8(2):137-142. DOI:10.1093/ckj/sfv015
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Despite antiretroviral (ARV) therapy reducing renal disease in human immunodeficiency virus overall, there is concern that certain ARVs, particularly tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) with or without a boosted protease inhibitor (PI), may reduce renal function over time. It is not known whether effects seen with PI-based regimens are independent, result from interactions with TDF coadministration, or are artefactual owing to inhibition of renal tubular creatinine transport by ritonavir or cobicistat pharmacoenhancement. The aim of this review was to conduct a systematic review of studies, weighted toward high-quality evidence, examining changes in renal function over time with PI-based regimens. Methods PubMed, Embase, and Medline databases and conference abstracts were searched using pre-defined terms for English language articles, published up to and including August 12, 2013, describing changes in renal function over time with PI-based regimens. All available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were selected; however, to reduce bias, only observational studies recruiting from more than one center and analyzing data from more than 1,000 patients were included. Evidence was qualitatively evaluated according to levels established by the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine (OCEBM). Results A total of 2,322 articles were retrieved by the initial search. Of these, 37 were selected for full review, comprising 24 RCTs (OCEBM Level 1 evidence: 4 reports of fully double-blinded or blinded with respect to the PI component). The remaining 20 RCTs and 13 observational studies qualified as OCEBM Level 2 evidence. Level 1 evidence showed initial but non-progressive increases in serum creatinine and corresponding decreases in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), suggesting an effect on renal tubular transport of creatinine. Level 2 evidence suggested that atazanavir and lopinavir especially in combination with TDF were associated with non-progressive reductions in eGFR over time, with a decreased risk for the development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) on cessation and without the development of advanced CKD or end-stage renal disease (ESRD); whether these reductions were independent or associated with interactions with coadministered TDF could not be established with certainty. Data on darunavir were insufficient to draw any conclusions. The principal limitation of the reviewed studies was the lack of standardization of creatinine measurements in virtually all studies and the lack of corroborative data on changes in proteinuria or other indices of renal function. Discussion In this review, there was little evidence for progressive changes in eGFR, or the development of advanced CKD, or ESRD with lopinavir or atazanavir. Further long-term studies, employing a wide range of validated renal function assessments, are required to fully evaluate potential association of PIs with CKD.01/2015; 4(1). DOI:10.1007/s40121-014-0056-4