Oral health impact profile and prosthetic condition in edentulous patients rehabilitated with implant-supported overdentures and fixed prostheses.
ABSTRACT The complexity of rehabilitation for totally edentulous patients makes it necessary to devise treatment strategies that meet the patients' expectations in terms of function, esthetic, psychological, and social aspects. The aim of this study was to i) compare the satisfaction of edentulous patients who had been rehabilitated with implant-supported overdentures and fixed prostheses in the mandible, and ii) assess the technical aspects of the prostheses in relation to patient satisfaction. This was a cross-sectional study involving 30 patients, 15 of whom had been rehabilitated with implant-supported overdentures and 15 who had been treated with fixed prostheses. The patients answered the OHIP-EDENT questionnaire, validated for the Brazilian Portuguese language, to assess satisfaction. Also, patients underwent clinical examination to assess the condition of their prostheses. Statistical analysis using the Mann-Whitney U-test revealed no significant differences in satisfaction between patients with overdentures and those with fixed prostheses. Likewise, Fisher's exact test demonstrated no significant differences in patient satisfaction concerning the condition of the prostheses as evaluated by the prosthodontist. It was concluded that both types of prostheses were perceived as being equally satisfactory by edentulous patients, and that the condition of the prostheses did not influence individual satisfaction in terms of rehabilitation.
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ABSTRACT: Rehabilitation of patients suffering from cleft lip and palate surgery sequels is still a challenge for health professionals related to both surgical and prosthetic fields. These patients require a multidisciplinary treatment able to offer the best possible rehabilitation alternative. The present article presents a case of total rehabilitation of a patient with sequels to cleft lip and palate surgery (loss of vertical dimension, nasal collapse, upper lip defect, upper and lower jaw discrepancies, oro-antral fistulae, absence of upper incisors) by means of a modified over-denture (with absence of endodontic treatment). Esthetic and functional results achieved with this treatment were satisfactory as well as achieved in a short period of time.Revista Odontológica Mexicana. 06/2013; 17(3):179-182.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this report is to present the clinical outcomes and patients' satisfaction of full-mouth rehabilitation using computer-aided flapless implant placement and immediate loading of a prefabricated prosthesis. The study included 30 consecutive fully edentulous patients who received 312 implants. Mandible and maxilla were treated in the same surgical session with computer-guided flapless approach using the NobelGuide protocol. Prefabricated screw-retained fixed prostheses were inserted at the end of surgery. Clinical and radiographic evaluations were assessed at 6, 12, and 36 months. At baseline and 6 months after surgery, patients answered Oral Health Impact Profile in Edentulous Adults questionnaire to assess satisfaction. The implant survival rate was 97.9%, whereas the average marginal bone loss was 1.9 ± 1.3 mm after 3 years. At 6 months, patients showed significantly greater satisfaction with their fixed rehabilitation when compared with conventional dentures. The results of this study confirm that rehabilitation with a prefabricated fixed prosthesis supported by implants placed with NobelGuide protocol is a viable and predictable treatment and increases patients' satisfaction and improves oral health-related quality of life.Implant dentistry 09/2013; · 1.51 Impact Factor
Abstract: The complexity of rehabilitation for
totally edentulous patients makes it necessary to devise
treatment strategies that meet the patients’ expectations
in terms of function, esthetic, psychological, and social
aspects. The aim of this study was to i) compare the
satisfaction of edentulous patients who had been
rehabilitated with implant-supported overdentures
and fixed prostheses in the mandible, and ii) assess the
technical aspects of the prostheses in relation to patient
satisfaction. This was a cross-sectional study involving
30 patients, 15 of whom had been rehabilitated with
implant-supported overdentures and 15 who had been
treated with fixed prostheses. The patients answered
the OHIP-EDENT questionnaire, validated for the
Brazilian Portuguese language, to assess satisfaction.
Also, patients underwent clinical examination to assess
the condition of their prostheses. Statistical analysis
using the Mann-Whitney U-test revealed no significant
differences in satisfaction between patients with
overdentures and those with fixed prostheses. Likewise,
Fisher’s exact test demonstrated no significant
differences in patient satisfaction concerning the
condition of the prostheses as evaluated by the
prosthodontist. It was concluded that both types of
prostheses were perceived as being equally satisfactory
by edentulous patients, and that the condition of the
prostheses did not influence individual satisfaction in
terms of rehabilitation. (J Oral Sci 51, 535-543, 2009)
Keywords: jaw; edentulous; patient; satisfaction;
dental prosthesis; implant-supported.
Inappropriate treatment of edentulism using total
prostheses may lead to not only impaired buccal function
and increased alveolar bone loss, but also increased patient
self-consciousness (1,2). Assessments of rehabilitation
treatments must consider patients’ opinions as a variable
of treatment success (3). Patients often express
dissatisfaction with their lower arch dentures (4), and
complaints include reduced retention stability of
conventional dentures, and difficulties with mastication and
verbal communication, all due to bone resorption of the
alveolar process with time (5).
The development of dental implants in clinical dentistry
must consider the needs of patients in terms of comfort,
esthetics, prosthesis stability and retention, verbal
communication and mastication. Much research has focused
on the success or failure of osseointegrated implants from
a biological standpoint. However, few studies have
addressed prosthetic aspects and the perception of treatment
outcomes by patients (6-8).
A patient’s perception of his or her own oral health is
very important. Oral health, as related to quality of life
(OHRQoL – Oral Health-Related Quality of Life),
characterizes an individual’s perception of buccal health,
and can be used as an indicator of the advantages of
prosthetic rehabilitation strategies (9,10). The Oral Health
Impact Profile (OHIP) questionnaire is one of the most
Journal of Oral Science, Vol. 51, No. 4, 535-543, 2009
Correspondence to Dr. Sabrina Rebollo Zani, Av. Benjamin
Constant 925/216, Bairro São Geraldo, Cep: 90550-004, Porto
Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
Oral health impact profile and prosthetic condition in
edentulous patients rehabilitated with implant-supported
overdentures and fixed prostheses
Sabrina R. Zani, Elken G. Rivaldo, Luis C. F. Frasca and Luis F. Caye
Department of Implantodontics and Prosthetic Dentistry, Dental School of Lutheran University of Brazil,
Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil
(Received 29 January and accepted 3 August 2009)
technically sophisticated instruments for assessment of
OHRQoL (11). The OHIP was developed in Australia by
Slade and Spencer (12) in 1994, and several versions of
the tool have been developed, one of which was recently
translated into Brazilian Portuguese (13). The tool
comprises 49 questions distributed into seven sub-scales.
However, the questionnaire is considered too far-reaching
by some, and a number of studies have explored the
possibility of downsizing it, without impairing its scope
of application. Among the short versions that have been
developed, such as the OHIP-14, the OHIP-DENT is seen
as the most appropriate for edentulous patients, as it
presents a set of specific questions. The tool detects the
impact of oral health on the quality of life of patients with
total prostheses, before and after they have received them
Satisfaction also depends on technical and patient-
related variables. Researchers have argued that the
evaluation of treatment success should be established by
each individual patient, as opposed to traditional clinical
evaluation methods (15). Despite the fact that patient well-
being is always the main aim of the treatment approach
adopted, clinical practice adopts predetermined criteria for
treatment assessment, and these criteria do not consider
the requirements and attitudes of individual patients (16).
The present study was conducted to compare the
satisfaction of edentulous individuals treated with implant-
supported overdentures and fixed prostheses, and to assess
the technical condition of these treatments in terms of
Patients were selected after an analysis of files detailing
treatments performed between 1998 and 2005, kept by the
School of Dentistry, Lutheran University of Brazil
(ULBRA). Edentulous patients treated with lower arch
implant-supported overdentures (removable) or fixed
prostheses, installed at least two years before and in the
presence of an antagonist agent (natural tooth or prosthesis)
were located and asked to take part in the study. Of the 37
patients selected, 30 (mean age 63.78 years) were effectively
examined. Fifteen patients had been treated with an
overdenture and 15 with a fixed prosthesis.
This study was approved by the Committee for Ethics
in Research, Lutheran University of Brazil. All patients
signed a written consent form.
Patient satisfaction was assessed using the OHIP-EDENT
(Oral Health Impact Profile in Edentulous Adults)
questionnaire. In 2007, Souza et al. (17) translated the
OHIP-EDENT into Portuguese, and this version was then
back-translated into English. Each question was evaluated
to make sure no change in meaning had been generated
in the Portuguese translation. Also, the reliability of the
questionnaire was evaluated using internal consistency
analysis (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient), which yielded an
index validated for the Portuguese language spoken in
Brazil. The OHIP-EDENT is a 19-question survey, grouped
as seven subscales or domains: functional limitation,
physical pain, psychological discomfort, physical disability;
psychological disability, social disability, and handicap.
This tool detects the impact of oral health on the quality
of life of patients who wear total prostheses (14). It is
specific to edentulous patients and presents questions
addressing masticatory capacity, pleasure in eating, level
of comfort and assuredness while wearing the prosthesis,
and relationship problems, among others.
The questionnaire (annex 1) was applied by one examiner
only. The individuals expressed satisfaction concerning the
prosthesis, answering questions such as: “Have you had
difficulty chewing any foods because of problems with your
teeth, mouth or dentures?”; “Have you avoided going out
because of problems with your teeth, mouth or dentures?”;
and “Have you been self conscious because of your teeth,
mouth or dentures”. In order to make it easier for the
patient, a choice of only three answers was given: (0) =
never; (1) = sometimes; (2) = almost always, unlike the
English version of the questionnaire, which gives a choice
of five answers. The lowest scores represent a satisfactory
perception of an individual’s oral conditions, and therefore
higher satisfaction and better quality of life. The patients
were also asked about their age and time they had been
wearing the prosthesis.
After the patient had answered the questionnaire, one
examiner assessed the technical condition of each
The following aspects related to overdenture rehabili-
tation were evaluated (annex 2):
- The condition of the acrylic portion of the teeth and of
the base, classified as “requiring intervention” or “not
requiring intervention” (18);
- Base adaptation, classified as “adapted” or “not adapted”
- Occlusion, classified as “satisfactory” or “unsatisfactory”
- Retention, classified as “excellent”, “good” or “poor” (18);
- Stability, classified as “excellent”, “good”, or “poor” (20).
The following aspects related to fixed rehabilitation
were evaluated (annex 2):
- The condition of the acrylic portion of the teeth and of
the base, classified as “requiring intervention” or “not
requiring intervention” (18);
- The bar, classified as “fractured” or “unfractured”
(assessed by clinical examination and panoramic
- Screw fixation, classified as “loose” or “tight” (1);
- The sealing material for the fixing screw, classified as
“satisfactory”, or “unsatisfactory” (21);
- Occlusion, classified as “satisfactory” or “unsatisfactory”
Annex 1 The OHIP-EDENT questionnaire (English version)
Annex 2 Clinical examination of the prosthesis’ technical condition, by
A radiological examination was performed in patients
with fixed rehabilitation (to assess the bar).
After the questionnaire had been answered and the
clinical and radiological examinations of the prosthesis had
been completed, patients were referred for an appointment
for prosthesis maintenance.
Initially, the differences between the study groups
(overdenture and protocol-type implants) were evaluated
using Student’s t-test for parametrically distributed
continuous variables (age, period for which prosthesis
had been worn), the Mann-Whitney’s U-test for non-
parametrically distributed continuous variables (OHIP-
EDENT score), and the chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact
test for category variables (categorized OHIP-EDENT
score: no complaint, or one or more complaints on the OHIP
scale, and sex) respectively.
Subsequently, the variable “categorized OHIP-EDENT
score” was used as the outcome, and the occurrence of
differences in prosthesis conditions between patients who
did not report and those who reported one or more
complaints on the OHIP-EDENT scale was verified using
Fisher’s test. The analyses of the overdenture and fixed
groups were conducted separately.
Pre- and trans-experiment intra-examiner reproducibility
for the variables “condition of the acrylic portion of the
teeth and base”, “occlusion” (for overdentures and fixed
prostheses), “base adaptation, retention, stability” (for
overdentures), and “bar, screw fixation, sealing material
for the fixing screw” (for fixed prostheses) were used to
calculate the kappa coefficient.
The rejection value for the null hypothesis was P ≤
0.05. The SPSS version 12.0 software package (SPSS
Inc., Chicago, USA) was used to conduct the statistical
The characteristics of the sample studied in terms of the
type of prosthesis are presented in Table 1. The sample
comprised 10 men and 20 women, with a mean age of 63
years (±12.0 years). No statistically significant differences
were observed for sex, age, or period for which prostheses
had been worn. The mean OHIP-EDENT score for the
overdenture group was 1.13 (±2.26), while that for the fixed
prosthesis group was 2.13 (±2.41). The difference was not
statistically significant. Among the participants in the
overdenture group, 33.3% reported one or more complaints
in the OHIP-EDENT questionnaire, as compared to 60.0%
of the fixed group. Although the participants in the fixed
group reported complaints more often than those in the
Table 2 Clinical characteristics of the patients wearing overdentures in accordance with the
categorical OHIP-EDENT (no complaint or one or more complaints)
Table 1 Characteristics of the sample studied in terms of the outcome of the prosthesis type
overdenture group (60.0% and 33.3%, respectively), the
difference was not statistically significant.
The kappa coefficients for pre- and trans-experiment
intra-examiner reproducibility for the variables of the
clinical examination varied between 0.80 and 1.00 in both
The prosthesis condition in the overdenture group,
according to the categorical OHIP-EDENT outcome, is
presented in Table 2. No significant difference was observed
between patients who did not report complaints and those
who reported one or more complaints on the OHIP-EDENT
scale, concerning adaptation of the base, occlusion,
retention or stability of the prostheses as assessed by a
The conditions of the prostheses worn by the fixed
group according to the categorical OHIP-EDENT outcome
are presented in Table 3. No statistically significant
difference was observed between patients who did not
report complaints and those who reported one complaint
or more on the OHIP-EDENT scale, concerning the acrylic
portion of the teeth and of base, bar, screw fixation, sealing
material for the screws, or occlusion of the prostheses as
assessed by a prosthodontist.
Tables 4 and 5 show the descriptive analysis of the two
groups for each question in the OHIP-EDENT, and Table
6 shows the descriptive analysis of both groups for each
question of the individual questionnaire.
In this study, satisfaction was determined using the
OHIP-EDENT questionnaire (the Brazilian Portuguese
version), which has been validated in the literature, to
detect the impact of oral health on the quality of life of
patients with total prostheses (overdentures and fixed
types), (17). The vast majority (82%) of previous studies
that have reported the influence of prosthetic treatment on
the quality of life of patients have used non-validated
instruments to assess patient satisfaction (22).
Few studies have compared implant-supported
overdentures and fixed prostheses. Generally, the
conventional total prosthesis has been compared with one
of these two types of total implant-supported prosthesis
(23-25). Feine et al. (26) and Grandmont et al. (27) selected
15 patients, of whom 8 were initially treated with implant-
supported fixed prostheses and 7 were given implant-
supported overdentures (removable). After 2 months,
patient perception of prosthesis utilization was assessed
using the visual analogue scale (VAS) and the category scale
(CAT), then the prostheses were changed and the procedures
repeated. No statistically significant difference was observed
between the two implant-supported prosthesis types.
Several studies have shown that patients treated with
implant-supported lower overdentures are more satisfied
than those who wear conventional overdentures (3,28,29).
A similar tendency has been observed for patients treated
with fixed prostheses, where the majority were generally
satisfied with this type of rehabilitation (1,2,30). Therefore,
the present results are similar to those already reported,
indicating that patients treated with implant-supported
total prostheses, whether removable or fixed, are contented
with the result, especially due to the fact that previously
they had worn total conventional prostheses, which were
ineffective in terms of retention, stability and support (5).
In terms of the assessment of prosthesis condition,
patients and trained prosthodontists define success
differently. The former characterize success in terms of
Table 3 Clinical characteristics of the patients wearing fixed protheses in accordance with the
categorical OHIP-EDENT (no complaints or one or more complaints)
Table 4 Descriptive analysis of each question of the Ohip-Edent in the fixed group
Table 5 Descriptive analysis of each question of the Ohip-Edent in the overdenture group
personal satisfaction, while the latter define it according
to technical prerequisites (31). Research has shown that
patients and prosthodontists do not use the same criteria
for assessing treatment success, and that they diverge on
the answers given (15). Pietrokovski et al. (32) reported
that patients tend to show a higher degree of satisfaction
with dentures than prosthodontists. Similar results were
obtained by Ettinger and Jakobsen (20), who reported a
significant negative correlation between evaluations offered
by patients and prosthodontists in terms of retention and
overall acceptance of mandibular overdentures. In a study
by Heydecke et al. (33), prosthodontists and patients (who
were given overdentures supported by two lower implants
and a conventional lower denture) were asked about their
overall satisfaction with the treatment, and with aspects
such as stability, speech and esthetics, before and after
treatment. It was found that patients and prosthodontists
both expressed higher levels of satisfaction with implant-
supported prostheses than with conventional ones, with no
differences between their evaluations. These results are in
accord with those of the present study, in that no statistically
significant differences were observed between patients
who did not report complaints and those who reported more
than one complaint on the OHIP-EDENT scale in terms
of the technical condition of the prostheses, in both the
overdenture and the fixed groups.
Moreover, the correspondence in satisfaction concerning
the two types of prostheses must be taken in the context
of a society in which most of the population live under
unfavorable financial conditions. It is suggested that more
clinical trials including control groups (with conventional
prostheses) should be conducted in order to shed new
light on the difference in satisfaction between patients
who receive implant-supported overdentures and those
receiving fixed prostheses.
In this study, patients treated with overdentures and
fixed prostheses were satisfied with their rehabilitation, and
no significant difference was observed between the two
groups. Furthermore, in both groups, there was no
significant difference between patients who did not report
complaints and those who reported one or more complaints
on the OHIP-EDENT scale, with regard to the technical
condition of the prosthesis.
We are deeply grateful to all colleagues and patients who
Table 6 Descriptive analysis of each question of the Ohip-Edent in both groups
contributed to this study.
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