Posttranslational modifications of tubulin and the polarized transport of kinesin-1 in neurons.
ABSTRACT Polarized transport by microtubule-based motors is critical for neuronal development and function. Selective translocation of the Kinesin-1 motor domain is the earliest known marker of axonal identity, occurring before morphological differentiation. Thus, Kinesin-1-mediated transport may contribute to axonal specification. We tested whether posttranslational modifications of tubulin influence the ability of Kinesin-1 motors to distinguish microtubule tracks during neuronal development. We detected no difference in microtubule stability between axons and minor neurites in polarized stage 3 hippocampal neurons. In contrast, microtubule modifications were enriched in a subset of neurites in unpolarized stage 2 cells and the developing axon in polarized stage 3 cells. This enrichment correlated with the selective accumulation of constitutively active Kinesin-1 motors. Increasing tubulin acetylation, without altering the levels of other tubulin modifications, did not alter the selectivity of Kinesin-1 accumulation in polarized cells. However, globally enhancing tubulin acetylation, detyrosination, and polyglutamylation by Taxol treatment or inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3beta decreased the selectivity of Kinesin-1 translocation and led to the formation of multiple axons. Although microtubule acetylation enhances the motility of Kinesin-1, the preferential translocation of Kinesin-1 on axonal microtubules in polarized neuronal cells is not determined by acetylation alone but is probably specified by a combination of tubulin modifications.
Article: Selective loss of RPGRIP1-dependent ciliary targeting of NPHP4, RPGR and SDCCAG8 underlies the degeneration of photoreceptor neurons.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The retinitis pigmentosa GTPase regulator (RPGR) and nephrocystin-4 (NPHP4) comprise two key partners of the assembly complex of the RPGR-interacting protein 1 (RPGRIP1). Mutations in RPGR and NPHP4 are linked to severe multisystemic diseases with strong retinal involvement of photoreceptor neurons, whereas those in RPGRIP1 cause the fulminant photoreceptor dystrophy, Leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). Further, mutations in Rpgrip1 and Nphp4 suppress the elaboration of the outer segment compartment of photoreceptor neurons by elusive mechanisms, the understanding of which has critical implications in uncovering the pathogenesis of syndromic retinal dystrophies. Here we show RPGRIP1 localizes to the photoreceptor connecting cilium (CC) distally to the centriole/basal body marker, centrin-2 and the ciliary marker, acetylated-α-tubulin. NPHP4 abuts proximally RPGRIP1, RPGR and the serologically defined colon cancer antigen-8 (SDCCAG8), a protein thought to partake in the RPGRIP1 interactome and implicated also in retinal-renal ciliopathies. Ultrastructurally, RPGRIP1 localizes exclusively throughout the photoreceptor CC and Rpgrip1(nmf247) photoreceptors present shorter cilia with a ruffled membrane. Strikingly, Rpgrip1(nmf247) mice without RPGRIP1 expression lack NPHP4 and RPGR in photoreceptor cilia, whereas the SDCCAG8 and acetylated-α-tubulin ciliary localizations are strongly decreased, even though the NPHP4 and SDCCAG8 expression levels are unaffected and those of acetylated-α-tubulin and γ-tubulin are upregulated. Further, RPGRIP1 loss in photoreceptors shifts the subcellular partitioning of SDCCAG8 and NPHP4 to the membrane fraction associated to the endoplasmic reticulum. Conversely, the ciliary localization of these proteins is unaffected in glomeruli or tubular kidney cells of Rpgrip1(nmf247), but NPHP4 is downregulated developmentally and selectively in kidney cortex. Hence, RPGRIP1 presents cell type-dependent pathological effects crucial to the ciliary targeting and subcellular partitioning of NPHP4, RPGR and SDCCAG8, and acetylation of ciliary α-tubulin or its ciliary targeting, selectively in photoreceptors, but not kidney cells, and these pathological effects underlie photoreceptor degeneration and LCA.Cell Death & Disease 01/2012; 3:e355. · 5.33 Impact Factor
Article: Impaired function of HDAC6 slows down axonal growth and interferes with axon initial segment development.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The development of morphological neuronal polarity starts by the formation and elongation of an axon. At the same time the axon initial segment (AIS) is generated and creates a diffusion barrier which differentiate axon and somatodendritic compartment. Different structural and functional proteins that contribute to the generation of neuronal action potential are concentrated at the axon initial segment. While axonal elongation is controlled by signalling pathways that regulate cytoskeleton through microtubule associated proteins and tubulin modifications, the microtubule cytoskeleton under the AIS is mostly unknown. Thus, understanding which proteins modify tubulin, where in the neuron and at which developmental stage is crucial to understanding how morphological and functional neuronal polarity is achieved. In this study performed in mice and using a well established model of murine cultured hippocampal neurons, we report that the tubulin deacetylase HDAC6 is localized at the distal region of the axon, and its inhibition with TSA or tubacin slows down axonal growth. Suppression of HDAC6 expression with HDAC6 shRNAs or expression of a non-active mutant of HDAC6 also reduces axonal length. Furthermore, HDAC6 inhibition or suppression avoids the concentration of ankyrinG and sodium channels at the axon initial segment (AIS). Moreover, treatment of mouse cultured hippocampal neurons with detergents to eliminate the soluble pool of microtubules identified a pool of detergent resistant acetylated microtubules at the AIS, not present at the rest of the axon. Inhibition or suppression of HDAC6 increases acetylation all along the axon and disrupts the specificity of AIS cytoskeleton, modifying the axonal distal gradient localization of KIF5C to a somatodendritic and axonal localization. In conclusion, our results reveal a new role of HDAC6 tubulin deacetylase as a regulator of microtubule characteristics in the axon distal region where axonal elongation takes place, and allowing the development of acetylated microtubules microdomains where HDAC6 is not concentrated, such as the axon initial segment.PLoS ONE 01/2010; 5(9):e12908. · 4.09 Impact Factor
[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Microtubules define the architecture and internal organization of cells by positioning organelles and activities, as well as by supporting cell shape and mechanics. One of the major functions of microtubules is the control of polarized cell motility. In order to support the asymmetry of polarized cells, microtubules have to be organized asymmetrically themselves. Asymmetry in microtubule distribution and stability is regulated by multiple molecular factors, most of which are microtubule-associated proteins that locally control microtubule nucleation and dynamics. At the same time, the dynamic state of microtubules is key to the regulatory mechanisms by which microtubules regulate cell polarity, modulate cell adhesion and control force-production by the actin cytoskeleton. Here, we propose that even small alterations in microtubule dynamics can influence cell migration via several different microtubule-dependent pathways. We discuss regulatory factors, potential feedback mechanisms due to functional microtubule-actin crosstalk and implications for cancer cell motility.Seminars in Cell and Developmental Biology 12/2011; 22(9):968-74. · 6.65 Impact Factor