Remote thermal injury increases LPS-induced intestinal IL-6 production.
ABSTRACT Patients suffering from burn injury are at high risk for subsequent infection. Thermal injury followed by endotoxemia may result in a "second hit," causing an exaggerated inflammatory response with increased morbidity and mortality. The role of the intestine in this "second hit" response is unknown. We hypothesized that remote thermal injury increases the inflammatory response of intestinal mucosa to subsequent treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Mice underwent sham or scald injury. Seven days after injury, mice were treated with LPS. Blood and bowel specimens were obtained. Serum and intestinal inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Changes in TLR-4 pathway components in intestine were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Intestinal leukocyte infiltration was analyzed by myeloperoxidase assay.
A "second hit" of injected LPS resulted in increased IL-6 in intestine of burned mice compared with sham. Similarly, jejunal IL-6 mRNA levels increased in mice with prior thermal injury, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism. Of transcription factors known to drive IL-6 expression, only AP-1 activation was significantly elevated by a "second hit" of LPS.
Prior thermal injury potentiates LPS-induced IL-6 cytokine production in intestine. These results indicate a heightened inflammatory response to a second hit by intestine after burn injury.
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ABSTRACT: In mice, it has been demonstrated that at 7 days after burn injury, injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is more lethal than the same dose at 1 day after injury. In the present study, we examined the effect of LPS injection to mice burned 7 days previously on glucose metabolism ([F] 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose [FDG] uptake) in vivo. CD-1 male mice (25-28 g, Charles River Breeding Laboratories, Wilmington, MA) were anesthetized, backs shaven, and subjected to dorsal full thickness burn on 25% TBSA. Sham-treated animals were used as controls. Six days after burn injury, all mice were fasted overnight. One half of the burned and sham controls were subsequently injected IP with LPS (10 mg/kg; Escherichia coli). The remaining animals were injected with saline IP. Two hours later, all mice were injected IV with 50 μCi of F FDG. One hour later, the animals were euthanized, and biodistribution was measured. Tissues were weighed, and radioactivity was measured with a well-type γ counter. Results were expressed as %dose/g tissue, mean ± SEM. The combination of burn 7 days previously and LPS significantly increased mortality compared to animals with burn alone, LPS alone, or sham controls. Burn injury 7 days previously caused a significant decrease in FDG uptake by the brain compared to sham controls. The combination of LPS and burn injury 7 days previously produced a significant increase in FDG uptake by brown adipose tissue and heart compared with either treatment separately. LPS produced a significant increase in FDG uptake by lung, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract of the sham animals, changes that were different in mice burned 7 days previously and injected with LPS. The present results suggest that burn injury 7 days previously predisposes mice to alterations in FDG uptake produced by LPS. These changes may relate, in part, to the increased lethality of LPS injection in previously burned mice.Journal of burn care & research: official publication of the American Burn Association 09/2012; 33(5):683-9. · 1.55 Impact Factor
Article: Animal models in burn research.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Burn injury is a severe form of trauma affecting more than 2 million people in North America each year. Burn trauma is not a single pathophysiological event but a devastating injury that causes structural and functional deficits in numerous organ systems. Due to its complexity and the involvement of multiple organs, in vitro experiments cannot capture this complexity nor address the pathophysiology. In the past two decades, a number of burn animal models have been developed to replicate the various aspects of burn injury, to elucidate the pathophysiology, and to explore potential treatment interventions. Understanding the advantages and limitations of these animal models is essential for the design and development of treatments that are clinically relevant to humans. This review aims to highlight the common animal models of burn injury in order to provide investigators with a better understanding of the benefits and limitations of these models for translational applications. While many animal models of burn exist, we limit our discussion to the skin healing of mouse, rat, and pig. Additionally, we briefly explain hypermetabolic characteristics of burn injury and the animal model utilized to study this phenomena. Finally, we discuss the economic costs associated with each of these models in order to guide decisions of choosing the appropriate animal model for burn research.Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences CMLS 04/2014; · 5.86 Impact Factor
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