Remote Thermal Injury Increases LPS-Induced Intestinal IL-6 Production
ABSTRACT Patients suffering from burn injury are at high risk for subsequent infection. Thermal injury followed by endotoxemia may result in a "second hit," causing an exaggerated inflammatory response with increased morbidity and mortality. The role of the intestine in this "second hit" response is unknown. We hypothesized that remote thermal injury increases the inflammatory response of intestinal mucosa to subsequent treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Mice underwent sham or scald injury. Seven days after injury, mice were treated with LPS. Blood and bowel specimens were obtained. Serum and intestinal inflammatory cytokines were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Changes in TLR-4 pathway components in intestine were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), Western blot, and electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). Intestinal leukocyte infiltration was analyzed by myeloperoxidase assay.
A "second hit" of injected LPS resulted in increased IL-6 in intestine of burned mice compared with sham. Similarly, jejunal IL-6 mRNA levels increased in mice with prior thermal injury, suggesting a transcriptional mechanism. Of transcription factors known to drive IL-6 expression, only AP-1 activation was significantly elevated by a "second hit" of LPS.
Prior thermal injury potentiates LPS-induced IL-6 cytokine production in intestine. These results indicate a heightened inflammatory response to a second hit by intestine after burn injury.
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ABSTRACT: To study the effect of salvianolate on expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6 mRNA in small intestine of cirrhotic rats. Cirrhosis in rats was induced using CCl4 (0.3 mL/kg). Rats were randomly divided into non-treatment group, low-dose salvianolate (12 mg/kg) treatment group, medium-dose salvianolate (24 mg/kg) treatment group, and high-dose salvianolate (48 mg/kg) treatment group, and treated for 2 wk. Another 10 healthy rats served as a normal control group. Mortality of cirrhotic rats in each group was evaluated after treatment with salvianolate. Serum samples were taken from portal vein for the detection of endotoxin. Morphological changes in tissue samples from the ileocecum were observed under a light microscope. Expression of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA in the small intestine of rats was analyzed by real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. The mortality of cirrhotic rats in the non-treatment group was 37.5%. No cirrhotic rat died in the high-dose salvianolate treatment group. The serum endotoxin level was significantly higher in the non-treatment group than in the salvianolate treatment and normal control groups. The intestinal mucosal and villous atrophy, necrosis and shedding of the intestinal mucosal epithelium, observed in the non-treatment group, were reversed in different salvianolate treatment groups. The TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA expression levels in small intestine were significantly lower in different salvianolate treatment groups than in the non-treatment group. Salvianolate can reduce the endotoxin level, ameliorate the injury of intestinal mucosa, and inhibit the expression of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA in small intestine of cirrhotic rats.World Journal of Gastroenterology 04/2011; 17(14):1903-9. DOI:10.3748/wjg.v17.i14.1903 · 2.43 Impact Factor