To determine whether testing for cytochrome P450 (CYP) polymorphisms in adults entering antipsychotic treatment for schizophrenia leads to improvement in outcomes, is useful in medical, personal or public health decision-making, and is a cost-effective use of health-care resources.
The following electronic databases were searched for relevant published literature: Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness, EMBASE, Health Technology Assessment database, ISI Web of Knowledge, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, NHS Economic Evaluation Database, Health Economic Evaluation Database, Cost-effectiveness Analysis (CEA) Registry and the Centre for Health Economics website. In addition, publicly available information on various genotyping tests was sought from the internet and advisory panel members.
A systematic review of analytical validity, clinical validity and clinical utility of CYP testing was undertaken. Data were extracted into structured tables and narratively discussed, and meta-analysis was undertaken when possible. A review of economic evaluations of CYP testing in psychiatry and a review of economic models related to schizophrenia were also carried out.
For analytical validity, 46 studies of a range of different genotyping tests for 11 different CYP polymorphisms (most commonly CYP2D6) were included. Sensitivity and specificity were high (99-100%). For clinical validity, 51 studies were found. In patients tested for CYP2D6, an association between genotype and tardive dyskinesia (including Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale scores) was found. The only other significant finding linked the CYP2D6 genotype to parkinsonism. One small unpublished study met the inclusion criteria for clinical utility. One economic evaluation assessing the costs and benefits of CYP testing for prescribing antidepressants and 28 economic models of schizophrenia were identified; none was suitable for developing a model to examine the cost-effectiveness of CYP testing.
Tests for determining genotypes appear to be accurate although not all aspects of analytical validity were reported. Given the absence of convincing evidence from clinical validity studies, the lack of clinical utility and economic studies, and the unsuitability of published schizophrenia models, no model was developed; instead key features and data requirements for economic modelling are presented. Recommendations for future research cover both aspects of research quality and data that will be required to inform the development of future economic models.
"In Europe, the Pharmacovigilence Working Party has recommended that labeling information should highlight the " possible reduction in response to tamoxifen in poor CYP2D6 metabolisers " . It remains to be seen whether this will be implemented by the member states, including the United Kingdom where CYP2D6 testing is currently not used widely outside of research . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: To demonstrate how value of information (VOI) analysis can be used to establish research priorities regarding the use of pharmacogenetic tests using CYP2D6 testing to select adjuvant hormonal therapy in early stage breast cancer as a case study.
The following four treatment pathways are compared in a Markov model: tamoxifen treatment; CYP2D6 test and treat homozygous and heterozygous wild type patients (wt/wt; wt/*4) with tamoxifen and *4/*4 patients with anastrozole (HetTam); CYP2D6 test and treat homozygous wild type patients with tamoxifen and others with anastrozole (HomTam); and anastrozole treatment. Pharmacogenetic testing efficacy is estimated by synthesizing randomized controlled trial data comparing tamoxifen to anastrozole with observational data linking CYP2D6 genotype to tamoxifen outcomes.
In order of increasing effectiveness the comparators are tamoxifen, HetTam, HomTam, anastrozole. Health outcomes for test and treatment strategies are highly uncertain. Differences in comparator costs depend on assumptions made regarding anastrozole patent expiry. The expected value of a decision taken with perfect information is £69 to £106 million (pound sterling) for the United Kingdom depending on patent expiry assumptions and the acceptable cost-effectiveness threshold. The most valuable research (VOI £53-£82 million) elucidates the relationship between CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen effectiveness. It is uncertain whether values of other research designs would exceed their costs.
Retrospective analysis of one of the large adjuvant aromatase inhibitor trials is warranted to better understand any association between CYP2D6 genotype and tamoxifen outcomes. VOI approaches may be helpful for prioritising evidence needs and structuring coverage with evidence development agreements for pharmacogenetics.
Value in Health 12/2011; 14(8):989-1001. DOI:10.1016/j.jval.2011.05.048 · 3.28 Impact Factor
"In order to implement such tools in unique populations , novel CYP2D6 alleles first need to be characterised and their respective capacity to metabolise CYP2D6 substrates assessed . CYP2D6 genotype is believed to have relevance to predict antipsychotic response (Kobylecki et al., 2009), although more studies that measure clinical utility of genotyping of CYP2D6 with regards to schizophrenia treatment are still required (Fleeman et al., 2010). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Genetic variation of the CYP2D6 gene has been associated with altered drug metabolism; however, limited studies have investigated CYP2D6 sequence diversity in African populations. We devised a CYP2D6 genotyping strategy to analyse the South African Xhosa population and genotype a Xhosa schizophrenia cohort, as CYP2D6 metabolises many antipsychotics and antidepressants.
The entire CYP2D6 gene locus was sequenced in 15 Xhosa control individuals and the data generated were used to design a comprehensive genotyping strategy. Over 25 CYP2D6 alleles were genotyped in Xhosa controls and Xhosa schizophrenia patients using long-range PCR, DNA sequencing and single nucleotide primer extension analysis. Bioinformatic algorithms were used to predict the functional consequences of relevant mutations and samples were assigned CYP2D6 activity scores.
A unique allele distribution was revealed and two rare novel alleles, CYP2D6*73 and CYP2D6*74, were identified. No significant differences in allele frequencies were detected between Xhosa controls and schizophrenia patients. This study provides i) comprehensive data on a poorly characterised population, ii) a valuable CYP2D6 genotyping strategy and iii) due to their unique genetic profile, provides the basis for pharmacogenetic intervention for Xhosa individuals.
Annals of Human Genetics 07/2010; 74(4):340-50. DOI:10.1111/j.1469-1809.2010.00585.x · 2.21 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The central themes of this article are the possibilities for opposition, critique, and resistance to dominant ideologies and practices in science and technology that feminist scholars offer. The feminist critique focuses on the sciences' as building models of consensus and systemic totality and on their social practices of generating and legitimizing knowledge (which are essentially self-referential). Against this background, ideas of an alternative practice of science and technology are explored: methodological principles like epistemological pluralism and polyvalence; ways to a working culture which supports the participation of different communities and partial translations between their “situated” knowledges. The central idea is to combine established forms of scientific inquiry with a social pragmatic of developing and legitimating goals, methods, theories, and products.
Women s Studies International Forum 01/1994; 17(2-3):257-266. · 0.46 Impact Factor
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