Perfusion CT in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with interferon.
ABSTRACT The objective of our study was to assess the potential value of tumor perfusion parameters measured by perfusion CT as possible biomarkers of prognosis and early indicator of treatment efficacy in patients with metastatic conventional renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with interferon.
This study comprised 37 patients with metastatic RCC who were enrolled in a larger (n=118) randomized clinical trial of intermediate- versus low-dose interferon. Tumor perfusion parameters-that is, tumor blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time (MTT), and permeability-surface area product-of index metastatic lesions were obtained at baseline and at 8-week follow-up. Baseline perfusion parameters and changes at follow-up were compared, and their associations with patient progression-free survival were estimated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.
Twenty-eight patients were assessable. Median progression-free survival was 5.3 months (95% CI, 2.4-7.4 months), with one partial response. Tumor blood flow at baseline was inversely associated with patient progression-free survival in both univariate (hazard ratio [HR]=1.006, p=0.025) and multivariate (HR=1.007, p=0.012) analyses. There were significant increases in tumor blood flow and reductions in MTT on follow-up scans compared with baseline scans (both, p=0.04), but no association between changes in perfusion parameters and progression-free survival was detected.
Patients with highly vascularized metastatic RCC as shown by high baseline tumor blood flow appear to have a worse prognosis than those who do not. Tumor perfusion may be a useful biomarker of prognosis and additionally, in the future, may assist in treatment stratification. The potential utility of perfusion CT as an early response indicator was probably inadequately assessed in this study because of the limited antiangiogenic activity of interferon in metastatic RCC.
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ABSTRACT: CT has historically been a static imaging modality, but the human body is in constant motion. The need to visualize the underlying physiology has driven CT to capture functional information as well. CT dynamics can be acquired using several different acquisition techniques on both conventional and high-end scanners. Dynamic joints, dynamic CTA, perfusion, and dynamic lungs are all emerging applications of CT dynamics. The use of dynamic CT can yield key diagnostic information not available from static scans.Current Radiology Reports. 1(1).
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) computer tomography (CT) as a biomarker in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Twelve patients with favorable or intermediate Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk group and clear cell mRCC participating in an ongoing prospective randomized phase II trial comprising interleukin-2-based immunotherapy and bevacizumab were included in this preliminary analysis. All patients had a follow-up time of at least 2 years. Interpretation of DCE-CT (max slope method) was performed blinded to treatment group. The DCE-CT scans were performed at baseline, at weeks 5 and 10, and thereafter every third month. Blood flow (BF; mL/min/100 mL), peak enhancement (Hounsfield units), time to peak (seconds), and blood volume (BV; mL/100 g) were calculated. Parameters for DCE-CT were correlated with sum of diameters (defined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) using Wilcoxon, Man-Whitney, Kaplan-Meier, and log rank statistics, as appropriate. Blood flow at baseline ranged from 4.9 to 148.1 mL/min/100 mL (median, 62.2; 25th percentile, 25.8; 75th percentile, 110.0). Patients with high baseline BF (using quartiles as cutoffs) had significantly longer OS (not reached vs 5.2 months, P = 0.011) and longer PFS (not reached vs 3.9 months, P = 0.026). Blood volume at baseline ranged from 8.8 to 74.1 mL/100 g tissue (median, 21.5), and at week 5, from 4.9 to 34.7 mL/100 g (median, 17.2). Relative changes in BV between baseline and week 5 ranged from -64% to +68% (median, -16%; 25th percentile, -41%; 75th percentile, +2%) and were significantly associated with OS using quartiles as cutoffs (5.2 months vs not reached, P = 0.038) and PFS using the median as cutoff (5.3 months vs not reached, P = 0.009), with larger reductions associated with longer survival. Using medians as cutoffs, relative changes in both BF and BV between baseline and week 10 were significantly associated with OS (for both, 8.6 months vs not reached, P = 0.031). Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT is a potential biomarker in patients with mRCC. High baseline BF and reductions in BF and BV during early treatment are associated with improved outcome. Large-scale studies are required.Investigative radiology 03/2014; · 4.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate microcirculatory differences between pathologic types of kidney tumor using 320-slice dynamic volume CT perfusion. Perfusion imaging with 320-slice dynamic volume CT was prospectively performed in 85 patients with pathologically proven clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (n = 66), papillary RCC (n = 7), chromophobe RCC (n = 5), angiomyolipoma (AML) with minimal fat (n = 7), or RCC (n = 78). Equivalent blood volume (Equiv BV), permeability surface-area product (PS; clearance/unit volume = permeability), and blood flow (BF) of tumor and normal renal cortex were measured and analyzed. Effective radiation dose was calculated. There was a significant difference in all three parameters between tumor and normal renal cortex (P<0.001). Equiv BV was significantly different between RCC and AML with minimal fat (P = 0.038) and between clear cell RCC and AML with minimal fat (P<0.001). Mean Equiv BV and BF were significantly higher in clear cell RCC than in papillary RCC (P<0.001 for both) and mean Equiv BV was higher in clear cell RCC than in chromophobe RCC (P<0.001). The effective radiation dose of the CT perfusion protocol was 18.5 mSv. Perfusion imaging using 320-slice dynamic volume CT can be used to evaluate hemodynamic features of the whole kidney and kidney tumors, which may be useful in the differential diagnosis of these four pathologic types of kidney tumor.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85522. · 3.53 Impact Factor