Perfusion CT in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma treated with interferon.
ABSTRACT The objective of our study was to assess the potential value of tumor perfusion parameters measured by perfusion CT as possible biomarkers of prognosis and early indicator of treatment efficacy in patients with metastatic conventional renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with interferon.
This study comprised 37 patients with metastatic RCC who were enrolled in a larger (n=118) randomized clinical trial of intermediate- versus low-dose interferon. Tumor perfusion parameters-that is, tumor blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time (MTT), and permeability-surface area product-of index metastatic lesions were obtained at baseline and at 8-week follow-up. Baseline perfusion parameters and changes at follow-up were compared, and their associations with patient progression-free survival were estimated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.
Twenty-eight patients were assessable. Median progression-free survival was 5.3 months (95% CI, 2.4-7.4 months), with one partial response. Tumor blood flow at baseline was inversely associated with patient progression-free survival in both univariate (hazard ratio [HR]=1.006, p=0.025) and multivariate (HR=1.007, p=0.012) analyses. There were significant increases in tumor blood flow and reductions in MTT on follow-up scans compared with baseline scans (both, p=0.04), but no association between changes in perfusion parameters and progression-free survival was detected.
Patients with highly vascularized metastatic RCC as shown by high baseline tumor blood flow appear to have a worse prognosis than those who do not. Tumor perfusion may be a useful biomarker of prognosis and additionally, in the future, may assist in treatment stratification. The potential utility of perfusion CT as an early response indicator was probably inadequately assessed in this study because of the limited antiangiogenic activity of interferon in metastatic RCC.
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ABSTRACT: To investigate microcirculatory differences between pathologic types of kidney tumor using 320-slice dynamic volume CT perfusion. Perfusion imaging with 320-slice dynamic volume CT was prospectively performed in 85 patients with pathologically proven clear cell renal cell carcinoma (RCC) (n = 66), papillary RCC (n = 7), chromophobe RCC (n = 5), angiomyolipoma (AML) with minimal fat (n = 7), or RCC (n = 78). Equivalent blood volume (Equiv BV), permeability surface-area product (PS; clearance/unit volume = permeability), and blood flow (BF) of tumor and normal renal cortex were measured and analyzed. Effective radiation dose was calculated. There was a significant difference in all three parameters between tumor and normal renal cortex (P<0.001). Equiv BV was significantly different between RCC and AML with minimal fat (P = 0.038) and between clear cell RCC and AML with minimal fat (P<0.001). Mean Equiv BV and BF were significantly higher in clear cell RCC than in papillary RCC (P<0.001 for both) and mean Equiv BV was higher in clear cell RCC than in chromophobe RCC (P<0.001). The effective radiation dose of the CT perfusion protocol was 18.5 mSv. Perfusion imaging using 320-slice dynamic volume CT can be used to evaluate hemodynamic features of the whole kidney and kidney tumors, which may be useful in the differential diagnosis of these four pathologic types of kidney tumor.PLoS ONE 01/2014; 9(1):e85522. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate prospectively, in patients with liver metastases, the ability of computed tomographic (CT) perfusion to predict the morphologic response and survival after transarterial radioembolization (TARE). METHODS: Thirty-eight patients (22 men; mean [SD] age, 63  years) with otherwise therapy-refractory liver metastases underwent dynamic, contrast-enhanced CT perfusion within 1 hour before treatment planning catheter angiography, for calculation of the arterial perfusion (AP) of liver metastases, 20 days before TARE with Yttrium-90 microspheres. Treatment response was evaluated morphologically on follow-up imaging (mean, 114 days) on the basis of the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors criteria (version 1.1). Pretreatment CT perfusion was compared between responders and nonresponders. One-year survival was calculated including all 38 patients using the Kaplan-Meier curves; the Cox proportional hazard model was used for calculating predictors of survival. RESULTS: Follow-up imaging was not available in 11 patients because of rapidly deteriorating health or death. From the remaining 27, a total of 9 patients (33%) were classified as responders and 18 patients (67%) were classified as nonresponders. A significant difference in AP was found on pretreatment CT perfusion between the responders and the nonresponders to the TARE (P < 0.001). Change in tumor size on the follow-up imaging correlated significantly and negatively with AP before the TARE (r = -0.60; P = 0.001). Receiver operating characteristics analysis of AP in relation to treatment response revealed an area under the curve of 0.969 (95% confidence interval, 0.911-1.000; P < 0.001). A cutoff AP of 16 mL per 100 mL/min was associated with a sensitivity of 100% (9/9) (95% CI, 70%-100%) and a specificity of 89% (16/18) (95% CI, 62%-96%) for predicting therapy response. A significantly higher 1-year survival after the TARE was found in the patients with a pretreatment AP of 16 mL per 100 mL/min or greater (P = 0.028), being a significant, independent predictor of survival (hazard ratio, 0.101; P = 0.015). CONCLUSIONS: Arterial perfusion of liver metastases, as determined by pretreatment CT perfusion imaging, enables prediction of short-term morphologic response and 1-year survival to TARE.Investigative radiology 06/2013; · 4.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Purpose: Credentialing can have an impact on whether or not a clinical trial produces useful quality data that is comparable between various institutions and scanners. With the recent increase of dynamic contrast enhanced-computed tomography (DCE-CT) usage as a companion biomarker in clinical trials, effective quality assurance, and control methods are required to ensure there is minimal deviation in the results between different scanners and protocols at various institutions. This paper attempts to address this problem by utilizing a dynamic flow imaging phantom to develop and evaluate a DCE-CT quality assurance (QA) protocol.Methods: A previously designed flow phantom, capable of producing predictable and reproducible time concentration curves from contrast injection was fully validated and then utilized to design a DCE-CT QA protocol. The QA protocol involved a set of quantitative metrics including injected and total mass error, as well as goodness of fit comparison to the known truth concentration curves. An additional region of interest (ROI) sensitivity analysis was also developed to provide additional details on intrascanner variability and determine appropriate ROI sizes for quantitative analysis. Both the QA protocol and ROI sensitivity analysis were utilized to test variations in DCE-CT results using different imaging parameters (tube voltage and current) as well as alternate reconstruction methods and imaging techniques. The developed QA protocol and ROI sensitivity analysis was then applied at three institutions that were part of clinical trial involving DCE-CT and results were compared.Results: The inherent specificity of robustness of the phantom was determined through calculation of the total intraday variability and determined to be less than 2.2 ± 1.1% (total calculated output contrast mass error) with a goodness of fit (R(2)) of greater than 0.99 ± 0.0035 (n = 10). The DCE-CT QA protocol was capable of detecting significant deviations from the expected phantom result when scanning at low mAs and low kVp in terms of quantitative metrics (Injected Mass Error 15.4%), goodness of fit (R(2)) of 0.91, and ROI sensitivity (increase in minimum input function ROI radius by 146 ± 86%). These tests also confirmed that the ASIR reconstruction process was beneficial in reducing noise without substantially increasing partial volume effects and that vendor specific modes (e.g., axial shuttle) did not significantly affect the phantom results. The phantom and QA protocol were finally able to quickly (<90 min) and successfully validate the DCE-CT imaging protocol utilized at the three separate institutions of a multicenter clinical trial; thereby enhancing the confidence in the patient data collected.Conclusions: A DCE QA protocol was developed that, in combination with a dynamic multimodality flow phantom, allows the intrascanner variability to be separated from other sources of variability such as the impact of injection protocol and ROI selection. This provides a valuable resource that can be utilized at various clinical trial institutions to test conformance with imaging protocols and accuracy requirements as well as ensure that the scanners are performing as expected for dynamic scans.Medical Physics 08/2013; 40(8):081906. · 2.91 Impact Factor