Perfusion CT in Patients With Metastatic Renal Cell Carcinoma Treated With Interferon
ABSTRACT The objective of our study was to assess the potential value of tumor perfusion parameters measured by perfusion CT as possible biomarkers of prognosis and early indicator of treatment efficacy in patients with metastatic conventional renal cell carcinoma (RCC) treated with interferon.
This study comprised 37 patients with metastatic RCC who were enrolled in a larger (n=118) randomized clinical trial of intermediate- versus low-dose interferon. Tumor perfusion parameters-that is, tumor blood flow, blood volume, mean transit time (MTT), and permeability-surface area product-of index metastatic lesions were obtained at baseline and at 8-week follow-up. Baseline perfusion parameters and changes at follow-up were compared, and their associations with patient progression-free survival were estimated. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed.
Twenty-eight patients were assessable. Median progression-free survival was 5.3 months (95% CI, 2.4-7.4 months), with one partial response. Tumor blood flow at baseline was inversely associated with patient progression-free survival in both univariate (hazard ratio [HR]=1.006, p=0.025) and multivariate (HR=1.007, p=0.012) analyses. There were significant increases in tumor blood flow and reductions in MTT on follow-up scans compared with baseline scans (both, p=0.04), but no association between changes in perfusion parameters and progression-free survival was detected.
Patients with highly vascularized metastatic RCC as shown by high baseline tumor blood flow appear to have a worse prognosis than those who do not. Tumor perfusion may be a useful biomarker of prognosis and additionally, in the future, may assist in treatment stratification. The potential utility of perfusion CT as an early response indicator was probably inadequately assessed in this study because of the limited antiangiogenic activity of interferon in metastatic RCC.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this article is to provide an up to date review on the spectrum of applications of perfusion computed tomography (CT) in the abdomen. New imaging techniques have been developed with the objective of obtaining a structural and functional analysis of different organs. Recently, perfusion CT has aroused the interest of many researchers who are studying the applicability of imaging modalities in the evaluation of abdominal organs and diseases. Per-fusion CT enables fast, non-invasive imaging of the tumor vascular physiology. Moreover, it can act as an in vivo biomarker of tumor-related angiogenesis.02/2013; 45(1):50-57. DOI:10.5152/eajm.2013.09
Conference Paper: Low dose perfusion CT[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Perfusion CT imaging, with today's multi-detector technology and rotation speed, has great potential to become extensively used to improve both diagnosis and treatment of diseases. However, high x-ray dose and the lack of standardization of protocols limit this potential. We would like to show that the x-ray dose of CT perfusion scans can be significantly reduced without compromising clinical accuracy, thus extending perfusion CT for dose-limited applications such as cardiac imaging and facilitating its development into a routine diagnostic tool. In this study, we use a novel dynamic collimator along with both predictive sampling and exposure algorithms to reduce x-ray dose. Our preliminary study, involving five kidney perfusion cases, combines these three approaches and demonstrates that more than a 10:1 reduction in patient exposure can be achieved without sacrificing diagnostic accuracy. We believe that this will enable perfusion CT to become a routine diagnostic tool.Nuclear Science Symposium and Medical Imaging Conference (NSS/MIC), 2012 IEEE; 01/2012
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ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) computer tomography (CT) as a biomarker in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). Twelve patients with favorable or intermediate Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center risk group and clear cell mRCC participating in an ongoing prospective randomized phase II trial comprising interleukin-2-based immunotherapy and bevacizumab were included in this preliminary analysis. All patients had a follow-up time of at least 2 years. Interpretation of DCE-CT (max slope method) was performed blinded to treatment group. The DCE-CT scans were performed at baseline, at weeks 5 and 10, and thereafter every third month. Blood flow (BF; mL/min/100 mL), peak enhancement (Hounsfield units), time to peak (seconds), and blood volume (BV; mL/100 g) were calculated. Parameters for DCE-CT were correlated with sum of diameters (defined by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS) using Wilcoxon, Man-Whitney, Kaplan-Meier, and log rank statistics, as appropriate. Blood flow at baseline ranged from 4.9 to 148.1 mL/min/100 mL (median, 62.2; 25th percentile, 25.8; 75th percentile, 110.0). Patients with high baseline BF (using quartiles as cutoffs) had significantly longer OS (not reached vs 5.2 months, P = 0.011) and longer PFS (not reached vs 3.9 months, P = 0.026). Blood volume at baseline ranged from 8.8 to 74.1 mL/100 g tissue (median, 21.5), and at week 5, from 4.9 to 34.7 mL/100 g (median, 17.2). Relative changes in BV between baseline and week 5 ranged from -64% to +68% (median, -16%; 25th percentile, -41%; 75th percentile, +2%) and were significantly associated with OS using quartiles as cutoffs (5.2 months vs not reached, P = 0.038) and PFS using the median as cutoff (5.3 months vs not reached, P = 0.009), with larger reductions associated with longer survival. Using medians as cutoffs, relative changes in both BF and BV between baseline and week 10 were significantly associated with OS (for both, 8.6 months vs not reached, P = 0.031). Dynamic contrast-enhanced CT is a potential biomarker in patients with mRCC. High baseline BF and reductions in BF and BV during early treatment are associated with improved outcome. Large-scale studies are required.Investigative radiology 03/2014; DOI:10.1097/RLI.0000000000000058 · 4.85 Impact Factor