Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 1-Positive Cancer Stem Cells Mediate Metastasis and Poor Clinical Outcome in Inflammatory Breast Cancer

Department of Molecular Oncology, Institut Paoli-Calmettes/UMR891 Institut National de la Sante et de la Recherche Medicale, Université de la Méditerranée, Marseille Cancer Research Center, Marseille, France.
Clinical Cancer Research (Impact Factor: 8.19). 12/2009; 16(1):45-55. DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-1630
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To examine the role of cancer stem cells (CSC) in mediating metastasis in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) and the association of these cells with patient outcome in this aggressive type of breast cancer.
CSCs were isolated from SUM149 and MARY-X, an IBC cell line and primary xenograft, by virtue of increased aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity as assessed by the ALDEFLUOR assay. Invasion and metastasis of CSC populations were assessed by in vitro and mouse xenograft assays. Expression of ALDH1 was determined on a retrospective series of 109 IBC patients and this was correlated with histoclinical data. All statistical tests were two sided. Log-rank tests using Kaplan-Meier analysis were used to determine the correlation of ALDH1 expression with development of metastasis and patient outcome.
Both in vitro and xenograft assays showed that invasion and metastasis in IBC are mediated by a cellular component that displays ALDH activity. Furthermore, expression of ALDH1 in IBC was an independent predictive factor for early metastasis and decreased survival in this patient population.
These results suggest that the metastatic, aggressive behavior of IBC may be mediated by a CSC component that displays ALDH enzymatic activity. ALDH1 expression represents the first independent prognostic marker to predict metastasis and poor patient outcome in IBC. The results illustrate how stem cell research can translate into clinical practice in the IBC field.

Download full-text


Available from: Gabriela Dontu, Jun 21, 2015
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Histopathological examination of material from prophylactic salpingo-oophorectomies performed in patients at genetic risk of ovarian cancer can reveal abnormalities interpreted as possible pre-cancerous “ovarian dysplasia” and tubal precursors lesions. We sought to study the morphological features and immunohistochemical expression patterns of neoplasia-associated markers in prophylactically removed ovaries and fallopian tubes (pBSO) in comparison with a group of serous tubal intraepithelial carcinoma (STIC) and non-cancerous controls.Study designMorphological features and immunohistochemical expression patterns of Ki-67 (for proliferation biomarker), p53 (key pathway of mullerian serous tumorogenesis), Bcl2 (anti-apoptotic), γH2AX (a double-strand breaks marker) and ALDH1 (a stem cell marker significantly associated with early-stage ovarian cancer) were blindly evaluated by two pathologists in 111 pBSO, 12 STICs and 116 non-cancerous salpingo-oophorectomies (control group) (nBSO).ResultsMorphological ovarian and tubal dysplasia scores were significantly higher in the pBSO than in controls (respectively, 8.8 vs 3.12, p < 0.0001, for ovaries and 6.54 vs 1.58, p < 0.0001 for tubes). Increased γH2AX expression was observed in the pBSO and STICs compared with the controls whereas expression patterns of Ki67, p53 and bcl2 were low to moderate in the pBSO group. STICs overexpressed Ki67 and p53 while bcl2 expression was low; Interestingly, ALDH1 expression was low in non dysplastic epithelium, high in dysplasia and constantly low in STICs.Conclusion The morphological and immunohistochemical profile of tubo-ovarian dysplasia and STICs might be consistent with progression toward neoplastic transformation in the Serous Carcinogenesis Sequence. These changes may be pre-malignant and could represent an important phase in early neoplasia. ALDH1 activation in pBSO samples and its extinction in STICs should be considered as a target for prevention.
    European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 10/2014; 183. DOI:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2014.10.003 · 1.63 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive form of breast cancer. Despite extensive study, whether inflammation contributes to the tumorigenicity or aggressiveness of IBC remains largely unknown. In this chapter, we will review the potential role played by inflammation in IBC based on the results of in vitro, in vivo, and patient studies. Current evidence suggests that several major inflammatory signaling pathways are constitutively active in IBC and breast cancer. Among them, the NF-κB, COX-2, and JAK/STAT signaling systems seem to play a major role in the tumorigenesis of IBC. Inflammatory molecules such as interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and gamma interferon have been shown to contribute to malignant transformation in preclinical studies of IBC, while transforming growth factor-β, interleukins 8 and 1β, as well as TNF-α appear to play a role in proliferation, survival, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, invasion, and metastasis. In this chapter, we also describe work thus far involving inhibitors of inflammation in the development of prevention and treatment strategies for IBC.
    Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology 01/2014; 816:53-73. DOI:10.1007/978-3-0348-0837-8_3 · 2.01 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary malignancy of bone, and pulmonary metastatic disease accounts for nearly all mortality. However, little is known about the biochemical signaling alterations that drive the progression of metastatic disease. Two murine OS cell populations, K7M2 and K12, are clonally related but differ significantly in their metastatic phenotypes and therefore represent excellent tools for studying metastatic OS molecular biology. K7M2 cells are highly metastatic, whereas K12 cells display limited metastatic potential. Here we report that the expression of Notch genes (Notch1, 2, 4) are up-regulated, including downstream targets Hes1 and Stat3, in the highly metastatic K7M2 cells compared to the less metastatic K12 cells, indicating that the Notch signaling pathway is more active in K7M2 cells. We have previously described that K7M2 cells exhibit higher levels of aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity. Here we report that K7M2 cell ALDH activity is reduced with Notch inhibition, suggesting that ALDH activity may be regulated in part by the Notch pathway. Notch signaling is also associated with increased resistance to oxidative stress, migration, invasion, and VEGF expression in vitro. However, Notch inhibition did not significantly alter K7M2 cell proliferation. In conclusion, we provide evidence that Notch signaling is associated with ALDH activity and increased metastatic behavior in OS cells. Both Notch and ALDH are putative molecular targets for the treatment and prevention of OS metastasis.
    Frontiers in Oncology 06/2013; 3:143. DOI:10.3389/fonc.2013.00143