Rubratoxin A specifically and potently inhibits protein phosphatase 2A and suppresses cancer metastasis.
ABSTRACT Although cytostatin analog protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A)-specific inhibitors are promising candidates of a new type of anticancer drug, their development has been hindered because of their liability. To find new classes of PP2A-specific inhibitors, we conducted a screening with microbial metabolites and found that rubratoxin A, a classical mycotoxin, is a highly specific and potent inhibitor of the enzyme. While rubratoxin A inhibits PP2A at Ki = 28.7 nm, it hardly inhibited any other phosphatases examined. Rubratoxin B, a close analog, also specifically but weakly inhibits PP2A at Ki = 3.1 microM. The inhibition of intracellular PP2A in cultured cells is obviously observed with 20 microM rubratoxin A treatment for 3 h, inducing the overphosphorylation in PP2A substrate proteins. Although rubratoxins and cytostatin differ in the apparent structures, these compounds share similarities in the structures in detail and PP2A-binding manners. Rubratoxin A showed higher suppression of tumor metastasis and reduction of the primary tumor volume than cytostatin in mouse experiments. As a successor of cytostatin analogs, rubratoxin A should be a good compound leading to the development of antitumor drugs targeting PP2A.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Shun-ichi Ohba, Nov 21, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Taxa of the Talaromyces purpurogenus complex were studied using a polyphasic approach. ITS barcodes were used to show relationships between species of the T. purpurogenus complex and other Talaromyces species. RPB1, RPB2, β-tubulin and calmodulin sequences were used to delimit phylogenetic species in the complex. These data, combined with phenotypic characters, showed that the complex contains four species: T. purpurogenus, T. ruber comb. nov. and two new species T. amestolkiae sp. nov. and T. stollii sp. nov. The latter three species belong to the same clade and T. purpurogenus is located in a phylogenetic distant clade. The four species all share similar conidiophore morphologies, but can be distinguished by macromorphological characters. Talaromyces ruber has a very distinct colony texture on malt extract agar (MEA), produces bright yellow and red mycelium on yeast extract sucrose agar (YES) and does not produce acid on creatine sucrose agar (CREA). In contrast, T. amestolkiae and T. stollii produce acid on CREA. These two species can be differentiated by the slower growth rate of T. amestolkiae on CYA incubated at 36 °C. Furthermore, T. stollii produces soft synnemata-like structures in the centre of colonies on most media. Extrolite analysis confirms the distinction of four species in the T. purpurogenus complex. The red diffusing pigment in T. purpurogenus is a mixture of the azaphilone extrolites also found in Monascus species, including N-glutarylrubropunctamine and rubropunctatin. Talaromyces purpurogenus produced four different kinds of mycotoxins: rubratoxins, luteoskyrin, spiculisporic acid and rugulovasins and these mycotoxins were not detected in the other three species.Persoonia - Molecular Phylogeny and Evolution of Fungi 12/2012; 29:39-54. DOI:10.3767/003158512X659500 · 4.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Mortality and morbidity associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) remain unacceptably high with disfiguring treatment options and a death rate of 1 per hour in the United States. The approval of cituximab for advanced OSCC has been the only new treatment for these patients since the 1970s, although it has not significantly increased overall survival. To address the paucity of effective new therapies, we undertook a high-throughput screen to discover small molecules and natural products that could induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and enforce a terminal unfolded protein response (UPR) in OSCC. The terpenoid cantharidin (CNT), previously used to treat various malignancies in culture-specific medical practices for over 2,000 y, emerged as a hit. CNT and its analog, cantharidic acid, potently induced protein and gene expression profiles consistent with the activation of ER stress, the UPR, and apoptosis in OSCC cells. Murine embryonic fibroblasts null for the UPR-associated transcription factors Atf4 or Chop were significantly protected from CNT, implicating a key role for the UPR in the death response. These data validate that our high-throughput screen can identify novel modulators of UPR signaling and that such compounds might provide a new therapeutic approach to treating patients with OSCC. © International & American Associations for Dental Research 2014.Journal of Dental Research 11/2014; 94(2). DOI:10.1177/0022034514559376 · 4.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: A series of directed knockout experiments, combined with an in vitro assay of pathway components, has elucidated for the first time the chemical steps involved in the biosynthesis of the tropolone class of fungal maleic anhydrides. The pathway involves the stepwise oxidation of aldehyde and methyl carbon atoms to form a 1,2-dicarboxylate. A hydrolase-catalyzed interconversion of this and the corresponding maleic anhydride, followed by decarboxylation of the diacid leads to the pathway's final product of stipitatic acid.Angewandte Chemie International Edition in English 05/2014; 53(29). DOI:10.1002/anie.201403450 · 13.45 Impact Factor