Fat and Water Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Department of Radiology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Impact Factor: 3.21). 01/2010; 31(1):4-18. DOI: 10.1002/jmri.21895
Source: PubMed


A wide variety of fat suppression and water-fat separation methods are used to suppress fat signal and improve visualization of abnormalities. This article reviews the most commonly used techniques for fat suppression and fat-water imaging including 1) chemically selective fat suppression pulses "FAT-SAT"; 2) spatial-spectral pulses (water excitation); 3) short inversion time (TI) inversion recovery (STIR) imaging; 4) chemical shift based water-fat separation methods; and finally 5) fat suppression and balanced steady-state free precession (SSFP) sequences. The basic physical background of these techniques including their specific advantages and disadvantages is given and related to clinical applications. This enables the reader to understand the reasons why some fat suppression methods work better than others in specific clinical settings.

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    • "In addition to DTI and MT imaging mentioned earlier, a number of other functional MR imaging tools are available for assessment of regional muscle architecture and perfusion such as MR spectroscopy (MRS), C13 hyperpolarized imaging, or multiecho imaging for fat fraction assessment, chemical shift imaging (CSI), as well as ASL (arterial spin labeling) and BOLD (blood level oxygenation determination) imaging. Research is under way using these technologies at various centers looking at different functional and pathophysiologic mechanisms of the neuromuscular disease [44–48]. Despite the advantage of MR imaging in detecting muscle morphology changes, biochemistry, and pathology combined with the potential to influence the way surgeons approach and treat nerve injury patients, there is currently paucity of research or literature on this subject on how it would affect clinical decision making. "
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    • "Detailed MRI physics are available for the casual (Hashemi & Bradley, 1999) and technical readers (Bernstein et al., 2004; Haacke et al., 1999; Vlaardingerbroek & den Boer, 1999). Fig. 1. "

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