Structural and functional characterization of plant aminoaldehyde dehydrogenase from Pisum sativum with a broad specificity for natural and synthetic aminoaldehydes.
ABSTRACT Aminoaldehyde dehydrogenases (AMADHs, EC 22.214.171.124) belong to the large aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily, namely, the ALDH9 family. They oxidize polyamine-derived omega-aminoaldehydes to the corresponding omega-amino acids. Here, we report the first X-ray structures of plant AMADHs: two isoenzymes, PsAMADH1 and PsAMADH2, from Pisum sativum in complex with beta-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) at 2.4 and 2.15 A resolution, respectively. Both recombinant proteins are dimeric and, similarly to other ALDHs, each monomer is composed of an oligomerization domain, a coenzyme binding domain and a catalytic domain. Each subunit binds NAD(+) as a coenzyme, contains a solvent-accessible C-terminal peroxisomal targeting signal (type 1) and a cation bound in the cavity close to the NAD(+) binding site. While the NAD(+) binding mode is classical for PsAMADH2, that for PsAMADH1 is unusual among ALDHs. A glycerol molecule occupies the substrate binding site and mimics a bound substrate. Structural analysis and substrate specificity study of both isoenzymes in combination with data published previously on other ALDH9 family members show that the established categorization of such enzymes into distinct groups based on substrate specificity is no more appropriate, because many of them seem capable of oxidizing a large spectrum of aminoaldehyde substrates. PsAMADH1 and PsAMADH2 can oxidize N,N,N-trimethyl-4-aminobutyraldehyde into gamma-butyrobetaine, which is the carnitine precursor in animal cells. This activity highly suggests that in addition to their contribution to the formation of compatible osmolytes such as glycine betaine, beta-alanine betaine and gamma-aminobutyric acid, AMADHs might participate in carnitine biosynthesis in plants.
Article: Amino acid residues critical for the specificity for betaine aldehyde of the plant ALDH10 isoenzyme involved in the synthesis of glycine betaine.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Plant Aldehyde Dehydrogenase10 (ALDH10) enzymes catalyze the oxidation of ω-primary or ω-quaternary aminoaldehydes, but, intriguingly, only some of them, such as the spinach (Spinacia oleracea) betaine aldehyde dehydrogenase (SoBADH), efficiently oxidize betaine aldehyde (BAL) forming the osmoprotectant glycine betaine (GB), which confers tolerance to osmotic stress. The crystal structure of SoBADH reported here shows tyrosine (Tyr)-160, tryptophan (Trp)-167, Trp-285, and Trp-456 in an arrangement suitable for cation-π interactions with the trimethylammonium group of BAL. Mutation of these residues to alanine (Ala) resulted in significant K(m)(BAL) increases and V(max)/K(m)(BAL) decreases, particularly in the Y160A mutant. Tyr-160 and Trp-456, strictly conserved in plant ALDH10s, form a pocket where the bulky trimethylammonium group binds. This space is reduced in ALDH10s with low BADH activity, because an isoleucine (Ile) pushes the Trp against the Tyr. Those with high BADH activity instead have Ala (Ala-441 in SoBADH) or cysteine, which allow enough room for binding of BAL. Accordingly, the mutation A441I decreased the V(max)/K(m)(BAL) of SoBADH approximately 200 times, while the mutation A441C had no effect. The kinetics with other ω-aminoaldehydes were not affected in the A441I or A441C mutant, demonstrating that the existence of an Ile in the second sphere of interaction of the aldehyde is critical for discriminating against BAL in some plant ALDH10s. A survey of the known sequences indicates that plants have two ALDH10 isoenzymes: those known to be GB accumulators have a high-BAL-affinity isoenzyme with Ala or cysteine in this critical position, while non GB accumulators have low-BAL-affinity isoenzymes containing Ile. Therefore, BADH activity appears to restrict GB synthesis in non-GB-accumulator plants.Plant physiology 02/2012; 158(4):1570-82. · 6.53 Impact Factor
Article: The carnitine biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana shares similar features with the pathway of mammals and fungi.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Carnitine is an essential quaternary ammonium amino acid that occurs in the microbial, plant and animal kingdoms. The role and synthesis of this compound are very well documented in bacteria, fungi and mammals. On the contrary, although the presence of carnitine in plant tissue has been reported four decades ago and information about its biological implication are available, nothing is known about its synthesis in plants. We designed experiments to determine if the carnitine biosynthetic pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana is similar to the pathway in mammals and in the fungi Neurospora crassa and Candida albicans. We first checked for the presence of trimetyllysine (TML) and γ-butyrobetaine (γ-BB), two precursors of carnitine in fungi and in mammals, using liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Both compounds were shown to be present in plant extracts at concentrations in the picomole range per mg of dry weight. We next synthesized deuterium-labeled TML and transferred A. thaliana seedlings on growth medium supplemented with 1 mM of the deuterated precursor. LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis of plant extracts clearly highlighted the synthesis of deuterium labeled γ-BB and labeled carnitine in deuterated-TML fed plants. The similarities between plant, fungal and mammalian pathways provide very useful information to search homologies between genomes. As a matter of fact the analysis of A. thaliana protein database provides homology for several enzymes responsible for carnitine synthesis in fungi and mammals. The study of mutants affected in the corresponding genes would be very useful to elucidate the plant carnitine biosynthetic pathway and to investigate further the role of carnitine in plant physiology.Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 08/2012; 60:109-14. · 2.84 Impact Factor