Fetal autonomic response to severe acidaemia during labour.
ABSTRACT Spectral analysis of heart-rate variability is used to monitor autonomic nervous system fluctuations. The low-frequency component is associated with sympathetic and parasympathetic modulation and the high-frequency component is associated with parasympathetic modulation. The objective was to study whether changes in low-frequency or high-frequency power of heart-rate variability occur in case of fetal distress.
Obstetric unit of a tertiary-care teaching hospital.
Twenty healthy human fetuses during labour at term of which ten had an umbilical artery pH < 7.05 (cases), and ten had an arterial pH > 7.20 (controls) after birth.
Spectral information about fetal beat-to-beat heart rate, calculated from direct fetal electrocardiogram registrations, was obtained by using a short-time Fourier transform.
Absolute power and normalised power in the low-frequency and high-frequency bands.
No differences were found between fetuses with and without acidaemia in absolute low or high frequency power (P = 0.2 and P = 0.3, respectively). During the last 30 minutes of labour, acidaemic fetuses had significantly increased normalised low-frequency power (P = 0.01) and decreased normalised high-frequency power (P = 0.03) compared with non-acidaemic fetuses. These differences were not observed from 3 to 2 hours before birth (P = 0.7 and P = 0.9, respectively).
The autonomic nervous system of human fetuses at term responds adequately to severe stress during labour. Normalised low and high frequency power of heart-rate variability might be able to discriminate between normal and abnormal fetal condition.
- SourceAvailable from: utexas.edu[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Power spectrum analysis of heart rate fluctuations provides a quantitative noninvasive means of assessing the functioning of the short-term cardiovascular control systems. We show that sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous activity make frequency-specific contributions to the heart rate power spectrum, and that renin-angiotensin system activity strongly modulates the amplitude of the spectral peak located at 0.04 hertz. Our data therefore provide evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays a significant role in short-term cardiovascular control in the time scale of seconds to minutes.Science 08/1981; 213(4504):220-2. · 31.03 Impact Factor
Article: Heart rate variability.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To present an overview of the applicability of heart rate variability measurements in medicine. During a 4-year period all new papers concerning heart rate variability were collected. A selection of the most recent publications in the presented research area was used for this review. The amount of short- and long-term variability in heart rate reflects the vagal and sympathetic function of the autonomic nervous system, respectively. Therefore heart rate variability can be used as a monitoring tool in clinical conditions with altered autonomic nervous system function. In postinfarction and diabetic patients, low heart rate variability is associated with an increased risk for sudden cardiac death. A sympathovagal imbalance is also detectable with heart rate variability analysis in coronary artery disease and essential hypertension. Besides diabetic neuropathy, in many other neurologic disorders, such as brain damage, the Guillain-Barré syndrome, and uremic neuropathy, heart rate variability analysis can provide insight into which division of the autonomic nervous system is most affected. Heart rate variability can be influenced by various groups of drugs, but it can also shed light on the mode of action of drugs. The protective effect of cardiovascular drugs in postinfarction patients has been investigated. Heart rate variability analysis is easily applicable in adult medicine, but physiologic influences such as age must be considered. The most important application is the surveillance of postinfarction and diabetic patients to prevent sudden cardiac death. With heart rate variability analysis, individual therapy adjustments to achieve the most favorable sympathetic-parasympathetic balance might be possible in the future.Annals of internal medicine 04/1993; 118(6):436-47. · 13.98 Impact Factor
Article: Pathologic fetal acidemia.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: There is no clearly established umbilical artery pH cutoff to be used for defining pathologic fetal acidemia (ie, the threshold associated with major neonatal morbidity or mortality). Classically, a pH cutoff of less than 7.20 has been used. Our goal was to define this pH cutoff more precisely. There were 3506 term newborns (2500 g or greater) with an umbilical artery pH of less than 7.20; these newborns were divided into five pH groups. Eighty-seven (2.5%) had a pH of less than 7.00, 95 (2.7%) a pH of 7.00-7.04, 290 (8.3%) 7.05-7.09, 798 (22.8%) 7.10-7.14, and 2236 (63.8%) 7.15-7.19. Two-thirds (66.7%) of the newborns with an umbilical artery pH less than 7.00 had a metabolic component in their acidemia, compared with 13.7% or less in all other pH groups. Significantly more (P less than .05) newborns in the less-than-7.00 pH group had low (less than 3) 1- and 5-minute Apgar scores compared with the other four pH groups. In addition, neonatal death was significantly more common (P = .03) in newborns with a pH less than 7.00, and seven (50%) of the 14 deaths occurred in this group. The statistically significant pH cutoff for all seizures was less than 7.05 (P = .004), and for unexplained seizures was less than 7.00 (P = .01). Eight (67%) of the 12 unexplained seizures occurred in this latter pH group. Thus, a more realistic pH cutoff for defining pathologic fetal acidemia would appear to be less than 7.00.Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/1992; 78(6):1103-7. · 4.80 Impact Factor