Anti-Arthritic Effects and Toxicity of the Essential Oils of Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.)

Department of Medicine, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85724, USA.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry (Impact Factor: 2.91). 12/2009; 58(2):842-9. DOI: 10.1021/jf9027206
Source: PubMed


Turmeric (Curcuma longa L., Zingiberaceae) rhizomes contain two classes of secondary metabolites, curcuminoids and the less well-studied essential oils. Having previously identified potent anti-arthritic effects of the curcuminoids in turmeric extracts in an animal model of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), studies were undertaken to determine whether the turmeric essential oils (TEO) were also joint protective using the same experimental model. Crude or refined TEO extracts dramatically inhibited joint swelling (90-100% inhibition) in female rats with streptococcal cell wall (SCW)-induced arthritis when extracts were administered via intraperitoneal injection to maximize uniform delivery. However, this anti-arthritic effect was accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Oral administration of a 20-fold higher dose TEO was nontoxic, but only mildly joint-protective (20% inhibition). These results do not support the isolated use of TEO for arthritis treatment but, instead, identify potential safety concerns in vertebrates exposed to TEO.

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    • "(Turmeric) belonging to Zingiberaceae family has been widely used as medicine, condiment, and cosmetic worldwide [8, 9] and valued as a functional food because of its health promoting potentials [10]. The rhizome of C. longa, a traditional medicine used for centuries in the Indian subcontinent, has been scientifically validated for its antioxidant [11], antimicrobial [12], antiarthritic [13], anticancer [14], carminative, stomachic, tonic, analgesic, hemostatic [15, 16] and anti-inflammatory activities [17]. Most of the studies performed on C. longa focused on curcuminoids components which comprised curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin [18] and the anti-inflammatory effect of C. longa was attributed majorly to curcumin [17] acting through the suppression of NF-kappaB and COX-2 activation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Curcuma longa is widely known for its anti-inflammatory activity in traditional system of medicine for centuries and has been scientifically validated extensively. The present study was conducted to evaluate the anti-inflammatory activity of curcuminoids and oil-free aqueous extract (COFAE) of C. longa and compare it with that of curcuminoids and turmerones (volatile oil), the bioactive components of C. longa that are proven for the anti-inflammatory potential. The activity against inflammation was evaluated in xylene-induced ear edema, cotton pellet granuloma models in albino Swiss mice and albino Wistar rats, respectively. The results showed that COFAE of C. longa at three dose levels significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inhibited inflammation in both models, as evidenced by reduction in ear weight and decrease in wet as well as dry weights of cotton pellets, when compared to the vehicle control. The COFAE of C. longa showed considerable anti-inflammatory effects against acute and chronic inflammation and the effects were comparable to those of curcuminoids and turmerones.
    Advances in Pharmacological Sciences 12/2013; 2013(4):805756. DOI:10.1155/2013/805756
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    ABSTRACT: Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) is a widely used food ingredient containing curcuminoids, which are important biologically active compounds. The antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of turmeric are well documented. We used turmeric powder in yellow layer cakes to study its effects on physico-chemical, sensory and overall product qualities. The viscosity of cake batter, cake volume, crumb color a and b values, crude fibre, curcuminoids content and total phenolic contents of baked yellow layer cakes increased with the addition of turmeric powder. The specific gravity in cake batter, crumb color L value, density, water activity and hardness of cakes decreased with the addition of turmeric powder. No significant differences were found among all the sensory parameters of control cakes and those with up to 6% turmeric substitution. However, cake that contained 8% turmeric was rated comparatively lower in crumb color, sweetness, flavour and overall acceptability. Turmeric yellow layer cakes showed good antioxidant activity, ferric (Fe3+) ion reducing power, scavenging ability for 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals and chelating ability on ferrous (Fe2+) ions. These results suggest that yellow layer cake can be developed as functional food with the addition of turmeric powder, which imparts improved physico-chemical and higher antioxidant properties to these cakes.
    Journal of food and nutrition research 01/2010; 49(3):123-133. · 0.80 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: There is an increasing demand for the herbal drug treatment of various ailments and many plant drugs from Ayurvedic system are being explored globally. The biological activities from various clinical and preclinical studies have been included along with some patents arising from these plants. The original report acts as a quick reference for extracting the biological activities, specially the newly reported effects, of the following selected Indian medicinal plants Adhatoda vasica, Aegle marmelos, Aloe vera, Andrographis paniculata, Asparagus adscendents, Cinnamomum tamala, Coriandrum sativum, Cuminum cyminum, Curcuma longa, Emblica officinalis, Glycyrrhiza glabra, Hemidesmus indicus, Mucuna pruriens, Phyllanthus niruri, Solanum nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, Terminalia chebula, Tinospora cordifolia, Withania somnifera, Zingiber officinale.
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