Conference Paper

An octave-spanning supercontinuum from an all fiber source

OFS Labs
DOI: 10.1109/CLEO.2003.1297807 Conference: Lasers and Electro-Optics, 2003. CLEO '03. Conference on
Source: IEEE Xplore


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    ABSTRACT: An association between childhood cognitive ability measured with IQ-tests and coronary heart disease (CHD) incidence has been reported recently. It is not clear from those studies to what extent the increased relative risk associated with lower cognitive ability may be explained by CHD risk factors. This study aims to investigate the association between cognitive ability measured at age 18-20 and incidence of CHD, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), and stroke among middle aged men adjusting for risk factors for CHD over the life course. Data on cognitive ability, and other risk factors for CHD (height, parental cardiovascular diseases (CVD) mortality, blood pressure, smoking, risky use of alcohol, BMI), were collected from 49,321 men, born in 1949-51, at conscription for compulsory military training in 1969/70 in Sweden. Information on socioeconomic factors in childhood (socioeconomic position and crowded housing) and adulthood (education, socioeconomic position, and income), as well as information on mortality and morbidity, was collected through national registers. Cognitive ability showed an inverse and graded association with CHD incidence. Adjustment for indicators of poor childhood circumstances, behavioural factors measured in late adolescence, and adult social circumstances strongly attenuated the increased risks of CHD and AMI. The contribution from adult social circumstances, after adjustment from all other factors, was very small. After adjustment for all risk factors no significantly increased relative risk was seen for stroke incidence. After adjustment for risk factors over the life course, the risk of CHD and AMI associated with cognitive ability decreased substantially, and was of borderline significance. Given the results from this study it is unlikely that cognitive ability is a risk factor on its own for CHD, AMI and stroke among men below 54 years of age.
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    ABSTRACT: Studies of middle-aged and particularly older-aged adults found that those with higher scores on tests of IQ (cognitive function) had lower rates of later mortality. Interpretation of such findings potentially is hampered by the problem of reverse causality: such somatic diseases as diabetes or hypertension, common in older adults, can decrease cognitive function. Studies that provide extended follow-up of the health experience of individuals who had their (premorbid) IQ assessed in childhood and/or early adulthood minimize this concern. The purpose of the present report is to systematically locate, evaluate, and interpret the findings of all such studies. We systematically identified individual-level studies linking premorbid IQ with later mortality by using four approaches: search of electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, and PSYCHINFO); scrutiny of the reference sections of identified reports; search of our own files; and contact with researchers in the field. Study quality was assessed by using predefined criteria. Nine cohort studies met the inclusion criteria. Overall, study quality was moderate. All reports showed an inverse IQ-mortality relation; i.e., higher IQ scores were associated with decreased mortality risk. The nature of this relation (i.e., dose-response or threshold) and whether it differs by sex was unclear. The IQ-mortality association did not appear to be explained by reverse causality or selection bias. Confounding by other early-life factors also did not seem to explain the association, although some studies were not well characterized in this regard. Adult socioeconomic position appeared to mediate the IQ-mortality association in some studies, but this was not a universal finding. In all studies, higher IQ in the first two decades of life was related to lower rates of total mortality in middle to late adulthood. Some plausible mechanistic pathways exist, but further examination is required. The precise nature of the IQ-mortality relation (particularly in ethnic minorities and women) and the link between IQ and disease-specific outcomes also warrants further research.
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    ABSTRACT: Adult height has been related to organ-specific malignancies in relatively few studies. Findings are discrepant for some sites and several studies are subject to a series of methodological limitations. We examined the association of adult height with death attributed to 14 cancer sites using data from the original Whitehall cohort. This is a prospective study of 18,403 middle-aged, non-industrial, London-based, male government employees who were examined in the late 1960s and then followed up for mortality for a maximum of 35 years. There were 11,099 deaths during follow-up, 3101 (28%) of which were ascribed to cancer. Cox proportional hazards regression models revealed modest effects for height in relation to site-specific cancers. Following adjustment for covariates that included employment grade (an indicator of socioeconomic position), body mass index and smoking habit, increased height was associated with elevated mortality rates for cancer of combined sites [hazards ratio per 5 cm increase in height (95% confidence interval); P for trend across height categories: 1.05 (1.03, 1.08); P < 0.001], lung [1.13 (1.06, 1.20); P < 0.001], prostate [1.07 (0.99, 1.15); P = 0.08], kidney [1.20 (0.99, 1.46); P = 0.08], skin [1.35 (1.06, 1.70); P = 0.02] and leukaemia [1.11 (0.96, 1.28); P = 0.02]. Amongst other explanations, the weak positive height-cancer gradients apparent herein may be ascribed to early life exposures that correlate with adult height, such as high caloric intake.
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