Costs of care for people living with combined HIV/AIDS, chronic mental illness, and substance abuse disorders.
Center for Health Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA.AIDS Care (Impact Factor: 1.6). 12/2009; 21(12):1547-59. DOI: 10.1080/09540120902923006
To determine healthcare access and costs for triply diagnosed adults, we examined baseline data from the HIV/AIDS Treatment Adherence, Health Outcomes and Cost Study, a multi-site cohort study of HIV+ adults with co-occurring mental and substance abuse disorders conducted between 2000 and 2004. Baseline interviews were conducted with 1138 triply diagnosed adults in eight predominantly urban sites nationwide. A modified version of Structured Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID) was used to assign Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) diagnoses for the preceding year. Utilization of a broad range of inpatient and outpatient services and medications over the preceding three months was patient-reported in face-to-face interviews. We then applied nationally representative unit costs to impute average monthly expenditures. We measured (poor) access to care during the three-month period by whether the patient had: (a) no outpatient medical visits; (b) at least one emergency room visit without an associated hospitalization; and (c) at least one hospitalization. At baseline, mean expenditures were $3880 per patient per month. This is nearly twice as high as expenditures for HIV/AIDS patients in general. Inpatient care (36%), medications (33%), and outpatient services (31%) each accounted for roughly one-third of expenditures. Expenditures varied by a factor of 2:1 among subgroups of patients, with those on Medicare or Medicaid, not in stable residences, or with poor physical health or high viral loads exhibiting the highest costs. Access to care was worse for women and those with low incomes, unstable residences, same-sex exposure, poor physical or mental health, and high viral loads. We conclude that HIV triply diagnosed adults account for roughly one-fifth of medical spending on HIV patients and that there are large variations in utilization/costs across patient subgroups. Realized access is good for many triply diagnosed patients, but remains suboptimal overall. Deficiencies in HIV care are unevenly distributed, tending to concentrate on already disadvantaged populations.
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ABSTRACT: Although AIDS is a chronic illness, little is known about the patterns and correlates of long-term care use among triply diagnosed HIV patients. We examined nursing and home care use among 1,045 participants in the HIV/AIDS Treatment Adherence, Health Outcomes and Cost Study, a multi-site study of HIV-positive patients with at least one mental health and one substance disorder. Patient interviews and medical record review data were used to examine the average monthly cost of nursing home, formal home and informal home care. Multinomial logit and two-part regression models were used to identify correlates of the use of formal and informal home care and the number of informal home care hours used. During the three months prior to baseline, 2, 7 and 23% of participants used nursing home, formal home and informal home care, respectively. Patients who were better-educated, had higher incomes, had Medicaid insurance (with or without Medicare coverage) and whose transmission mode was homosexual sex had higher regression-adjusted probabilities of receiving any formal home care; Latinos and physically healthier patients had lower probabilities. Women and patients who abused drugs or alcohol (but not both) were more likely to receive informal care only. Overall, patients who were female, better-educated, physically or mentally sicker or single-substance abusers were more likely to receive any home care (either formal or informal), while those contracting HIV through heterosexual sex were less likely. Women received 28 more monthly hours of informal care than men and married patients received 31 more hours than unmarried patients. We conclude that at least one mutable policy factor (Medicaid insurance) is strongly associated with formal home care use among triply diagnosed patients. Further research is needed to explore possible implications for access among this vulnerable subpopulation.AIDS Care 07/2008; 20(10):1177-89. DOI:10.1080/09540120801918644 · 1.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: HIV triply-diagnosed adults (those with chronic mental illness and substance abuse disorders) must rely heavily on public insurance to cover high annual medical costs (approximately $50,000). This study examines the nature and determinants of insurance coverage (including managed care) for this population, along with annual transitions in coverage. Relative to people living with HIV/AIDS in general, fewer triply-diagnosed adults rely on private coverage (3% vs. 30%), but their rate of being uninsured is only slightly lower (16% vs. 20%). More than one third of such adults below poverty are uninsured-a matter of significant policy concern since the annual income of this group is less than 10% of the amount needed to cover their expected medical expenses. Those with the lowest mental health status were disproportionately represented in managed care. While coverage appears relatively stable over time, those with low incomes and moderate mental health status may face barriers in securing Medicaid.Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved 08/2010; 21(3):1006-30. DOI:10.1353/hpu.0.0330 · 1.10 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Substance use is highly prevalent among people living with HIV/AIDS, is often comorbid with other mental health problems, related to poor HIV medical outcomes, and, is associated with poor medication and treatment adherence. The current review reports on the recent state of the literature in terms of substance use and its relation to HIV medication and treatment adherence, and offers recommendations for advancing treatment and secondary HIV prevention efforts. Identifying substance users within HIV primary care and developing, evaluating, and refining integrative substance use-mental health-adherence interventions may be clinically important targets for effective disease management and may contribute to secondary HIV prevention efforts.Current HIV/AIDS Reports 08/2011; 8(4):223-34. DOI:10.1007/s11904-011-0093-5 · 3.80 Impact Factor
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