Costs of care for people living with combined HIV/AIDS, chronic mental illness, and substance abuse disorders.
ABSTRACT To determine healthcare access and costs for triply diagnosed adults, we examined baseline data from the HIV/AIDS Treatment Adherence, Health Outcomes and Cost Study, a multi-site cohort study of HIV+ adults with co-occurring mental and substance abuse disorders conducted between 2000 and 2004. Baseline interviews were conducted with 1138 triply diagnosed adults in eight predominantly urban sites nationwide. A modified version of Structured Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID) was used to assign Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th edition (DSM-IV) diagnoses for the preceding year. Utilization of a broad range of inpatient and outpatient services and medications over the preceding three months was patient-reported in face-to-face interviews. We then applied nationally representative unit costs to impute average monthly expenditures. We measured (poor) access to care during the three-month period by whether the patient had: (a) no outpatient medical visits; (b) at least one emergency room visit without an associated hospitalization; and (c) at least one hospitalization. At baseline, mean expenditures were $3880 per patient per month. This is nearly twice as high as expenditures for HIV/AIDS patients in general. Inpatient care (36%), medications (33%), and outpatient services (31%) each accounted for roughly one-third of expenditures. Expenditures varied by a factor of 2:1 among subgroups of patients, with those on Medicare or Medicaid, not in stable residences, or with poor physical health or high viral loads exhibiting the highest costs. Access to care was worse for women and those with low incomes, unstable residences, same-sex exposure, poor physical or mental health, and high viral loads. We conclude that HIV triply diagnosed adults account for roughly one-fifth of medical spending on HIV patients and that there are large variations in utilization/costs across patient subgroups. Realized access is good for many triply diagnosed patients, but remains suboptimal overall. Deficiencies in HIV care are unevenly distributed, tending to concentrate on already disadvantaged populations.
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ABSTRACT: Latinos living with HIV residing in the US-Mexico border region frequently seek care on both sides of the border. Given this fact, a border health perspective to understanding barriers to care is imperative to improve patient health outcomes. This qualitative study describes and compares experiences and perceptions of Mexican and US HIV care providers regarding barriers to HIV care access for Latino patients living in the US-Mexico border region. In 2010, we conducted in-depth qualitative interviews with HIV care providers in Tijuana (n = 10) and San Diego (n = 9). We identified important similarities and differences between Mexican and US healthcare provider perspectives on HIV care access and barriers to service utilisation. Similarities included the fact that HIV-positive Latino patients struggle with access to ART medication, mental health illness, substance abuse and HIV-related stigma. Differences included Mexican provider perceptions of medication shortages and US providers feeling that insurance gaps influenced medication access. Differences and similarities have important implications for cross-border efforts to coordinate health services for patients who seek care in both countries.Culture Health & Sexuality 03/2014; · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. The costs of providing care to HIV-infected (HIV+) patients with co-occurring diagnoses of substance use (SU) disorder or psychiatric disease (PD) are not well documented. It is our objective to evaluate costs in these HIV+ patients receiving care in a large health plan. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study from 1995 to 2010 to compare costs of healthcare in HIV+ patients with and without co-occurring SU disorder and/or PD diagnoses. Estimates of proportional differences in costs (rate ratios) were obtained from repeated measures generalized linear regression. Models were stratified by cost category (e.g., inpatient, outpatient). Results. Mean total healthcare costs per patient per year were higher in HIV+ patients diagnosed with SU disorder or PD compared to HIV+ patients without these comorbid conditions. After controlling for confounders, total mean costs remained significantly higher in patients diagnosed with SU disorder (RR = 1.24, 95% CI = 1.18-1.31) or PD (RR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.15-1.24). Mean outpatient care costs were significantly greater in patients with both SU disorder and PD (RR = 1.52, 95% CI = 1.41-1.64). Conclusions. Given these higher expenditures in the care of HIV+ patients with comorbid SU disorder and/or PD, greater efforts to facilitate SU disorder or PD treatment initiation and persistence could provide substantial savings.AIDS research and treatment 01/2014; 2014:570546.
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ABSTRACT: Aims: Community outreach services play an important role in infectious disease prevention and engaging drug users not currently in treatment. However, fewer than half of US substance abuse treatment units provide these services and many have little financial incentive to do so. Unit directors generally have latitude about scope of services, including the level of outreach provided to the community. The current study examines how directors’ interactions with external stakeholders affect substance abuse treatment units’ provision of community outreach services. Methods: Cross-sectional logistic and Poisson regression analyses were conducted on a national sample of US outpatient substance abuse treatment units (N = 547). Results: Findings suggest that the amount of time directors spent with licensing and monitoring associations was associated with provision of a greater number of community outreach services, while time spent with professional and occupational associations was associated with provision of off-site human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis C testing. Several other director attributes and organizational characteristics also emerged as significant. Conclusions: External stakeholders with whom substance abuse treatment directors interact may influence community outreach through their effects on treatment directors’ strategic priorities. Implications for policy and prevention efforts are discussed.Drugs Education Prevention & Policy 04/2013; · 0.53 Impact Factor