Article

Photodynamic therapy as an adjunctive treatment for chronic periodontitis: a meta-analysis.

Sir John Walsh Research Institute, School of Dentistry, University of Otago, PO Box 647, Dunedin, New Zealand.
Lasers in Medical Science (Impact Factor: 2.42). 12/2009; 25(4):605-13. DOI: 10.1007/s10103-009-0744-6
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Several antimicrobial strategies have been proposed in response to the alarming rise in antimicrobial resistance of periodontal pathogens. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (a-PDT) is a promising novel approach that has been used in several clinical applications including in the treatment of periodontal diseases. The aim of this review was to systematically investigate the effectiveness of a-PDT as an adjuvant treatment for chronic periodontitis. The guidelines of the Quality of Reporting of Meta-analyses (QUOROM) conference statement were followed in the preparation of this meta-analysis. An electronic search for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that investigated the combined use of scaling and root planing (SRP) and a-PDT in comparison with SRP alone was performed without language restriction up to 1 October 2008. RevMan 5.0 software was used to analyze the data. A random effects model was chosen and standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for continuous data. Four RCTs were included. The use of a-PDT in conjunction with SRP was associated with significantly greater attachment gain (mean difference 0.29, 95% confidence interval 0.08 to 0.50, p=0.007), and greater reduction in probing depth (mean difference 0.11, 95% confidence interval -0.12 to 0.35, p=0.35) at 12 weeks. However, the changes in gingival recession showed slight differences. This review and meta-analysis supported the potential improvements in clinical attachment level and probing depth provided by the combined approach (SRP with a-PDT). Nevertheless, the findings of this review should be interpreted with caution given the small number of included studies.

1 Follower
 · 
81 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BackgroundSplit-mouth randomized controlled trials (RCTs) are popular in oral health research. Meta-analyses frequently include trials of both split-mouth and parallel-arm designs to derive combined intervention effects. However, carry-over effects may induce bias in split- mouth RCTs. We aimed to assess whether intervention effect estimates differ between split- mouth and parallel-arm RCTs investigating the same questions.MethodsWe performed a meta-epidemiological study. We systematically reviewed meta- analyses including both split-mouth and parallel-arm RCTs with binary or continuous outcomes published up to February 2013. Two independent authors selected studies and extracted data. We used a two-step approach to quantify the differences between split-mouth and parallel-arm RCTs: for each meta-analysis. First, we derived ratios of odds ratios (ROR) for dichotomous data and differences in standardized mean differences (∆SMD) for continuous data; second, we pooled RORs or ∆SMDs across meta-analyses by random-effects meta-analysis models.ResultsWe selected 18 systematic reviews, for 15 meta-analyses with binary outcomes (28 split-mouth and 28 parallel-arm RCTs) and 19 meta-analyses with continuous outcomes (28 split-mouth and 28 parallel-arm RCTs). Effect estimates did not differ between split-mouth and parallel-arm RCTs (mean ROR, 0.96, 95% confidence interval 0.52–1.80; mean ∆SMD, 0.08, -0.14–0.30).ConclusionsOur study did not provide sufficient evidence for a difference in intervention effect estimates derived from split-mouth and parallel-arm RCTs. Authors should consider including split-mouth RCTs in their meta-analyses with suitable and appropriate analysis.
    BMC Medical Research Methodology 05/2014; 14(1):64. DOI:10.1186/1471-2288-14-64 · 2.17 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Abstract Objective. To investigate the lethal activity of photoactivated disinfection (PAD) on Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212) and mixed populations of aerobic or anaerobic bacteria in infected root canals using a diode laser after the application of a photosensitizer (PS). Materials and methods. First, the bactericidal activity of a low power diode laser (200 mW) against E. faecalis ATCC 29212 pre-treated with a PS (toluidine blue) for 2 min were examined after different irradiation times (30 s, 60 s and 90 s). The bactericidal activity in the presence of human serum or human serum albumin (HSA) was also examined. Second, root canals were infected with E. faecalis or with mixed aerobic or anaerobic microbial populations for 3 days and then irrigated with 1.5% sodium hypochlorite and exposed to PAD for 60 s. Results. Photosensitization followed by laser irradiation for 60 s was sufficient to kill E. faecalis. Bacteria suspended in human serum (25% v/v) were totally eradicated after 30 s of irradiation. The addition of HSA (25 mg/ml or 50 mg/ml) to bacterial suspensions increased the antimicrobial efficacy of PAD after an irradiation time of 30 s, but no longer. The bactericidal effect of sodium hypochlorite was only enhanced by PAD during the early stages of treatment. PAD did not enhance the activity of sodium hypochlorite against a mixture of anaerobic bacteria. Conclusions. The bactericidal activity of PAD appears to be enhanced by serum proteins in vitro, but is limited to bacteria present within the root canal.
    Acta odontologica Scandinavica 03/2014; 72(8). DOI:10.3109/00016357.2014.898087 · 1.31 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: About 50 years ago, lasers started to be used in periodontal treatment following evidence that wounds produced in animals healed more quickly after being irradiated with low-intensity lasers. Increased production of growth factors, stimulated mainly by red and infrared lasers, may participate in this process by influencing the behavior of various types of cells. High-intensity lasers have been used as an alternative to nonsurgical periodontal therapy in root biomodification and to reduce dentin hypersensivity; low-intensity lasers are frequently employed to improve tissue repair in regenerative procedures and in antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. Despite the abundance of promising data on the advantages of their use, there is still controversy regarding the real benefits of lasers and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy in periodontal and peri-implant treatment. A huge variation in the parameters of laser application among studies makes comparisons very difficult. An overview of the current concepts and findings on lasers in periodontal therapy is presented with emphasis on data collected from Latin-American researchers.
    Periodontology 2000 02/2015; 67(1). DOI:10.1111/prd.12067 · 3.00 Impact Factor