Characteristics of Cutaneous Marginal Zone Lymphomas With Marked Plasmacytic Differentiation and a T Cell-Rich Background
ABSTRACT Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) is a common B-cell lymphoma of skin and is characterized by an infiltrate of neoplastic marginal zone B cells typically within the marginal zones of reactive lymphoid follicles and the interfollicular region. However, in our experience, many cases have underemphasized features such as marked plasmacytic differentiation and/or a prominent T-cell component, which may obscure the neoplastic B cells and lead to misdiagnosis. We wanted to draw attention to these features and have studied 15 cases of MZL with marked plasmacytic differentiation, 10 of which had numerous T cells, some with cytologic atypia, and few B cells in the interfollicular region. Plasma cells were monotypic in all cases by in situ hybridization. By polymerase chain reaction, 6 of 8 T cell-rich cases had an IGH gene rearrangement, and none were clonal for T-cell receptor gene. We discuss the terminology, morphologic features, molecular profile, behavior, and differential diagnosis of cutaneous MZL.
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ABSTRACT: : Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (PCBCL) are the second most common form of primary cutaneous lymphomas and account for approximately 25%-30% of all primary cutaneous lymphomas. Both forms of low-grade malignant PCBCL, primary cutaneous follicle center lymphoma (PCFCL) and primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue-type (MALT lymphoma) (PCMZL) represent the vast majority of PCBCL and show an indolent slowly progressive course and an excellent prognosis despite a high recurrence rate. Genetic analysis indicates that PCMZL differ from other forms of extranodal MALT lymphomas. The more common class-switched and the non-class-switched form of PCMZL can be distinguished as two distinctive subsets that differ in the cellular composition, IgM expression, and biological behavior with extracutaneous involvement found in the non-class-switched form. Recently, unusual clinical and histological forms of PCMZL and PCFCL manifesting with miliary or agminated lesions have been described that are diagnostically challenging. In contrast to PCMZL and PCFCL, primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type, and other rare forms of large B-cell lymphomas such as intravascular large B-cell lymphoma have an unfavorable prognosis. There is an emerging group of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-driven B-cell lymphoproliferations including posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders and mucocutaneous ulcer occurring in immunocompromised patients and EBV-associated diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly arising in the setting of senescence-linked immunodeficiency. This review reports on recent findings expanding the spectrum of clinicopathological features, differential diagnostic aspects, and the pathogenesis of PCBCL and discusses the group of EBV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferations involving the skin.The American Journal of dermatopathology 03/2014; 36(3):197-210. DOI:10.1097/DAD.0b013e318289b20e · 1.43 Impact Factor
01/2015; 1(1):46-48. DOI:10.1016/j.jdcr.2014.11.005
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ABSTRACT: Background Pseudolymphomatous folliculitis is a lymphoid proliferation that clinically and histopathologically mimics primary cutaneous extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma). In this study we assessed the diagnostic value of three immunohistochemical markers, PD-1, CD1a, and S100.Methods We evaluated 25 cases of cutaneous lymphoid proliferations with established diagnoses, including 9 patients with pseudolymphomatous folliculitis, 11 with MALT lymphoma, and 5 with cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia (CLH). The clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical characteristics were reviewed and three major characteristics assessed: 1) proportion of T cells expressing PD-1, 2) pattern of expression of CD1a by dendritic cells, and 3) pattern of expression of S100 by dendritic cells.ResultsWe found pseudolymphomatous folliculitis to have a significant increase in PD-1+ T cells compared to MALT lymphoma (p < 0.0001). The pattern of CD1a staining is also informative: MALT lymphoma is significantly more likely to demonstrate a peripheral concentration of CD1a+ dendritic cells around lymphoid nodules than pseudolymphomatous folliculitis (p < 0.0003) or CLH (p < 0.05). Pseudolymphomatous folliculitis demonstrates an interstitial distribution of CD1a+ cells more often than MALT lymphoma (p < 0.04). S100 staining was not a helpful discriminator.Conclusions Histopathologic factors including PD-1 and CD1a staining patterns may allow for more certainty in distinguishing lymphoid hyperplasia, including pseudolymphomatous folliculitis, from MALT lymphoma.Journal of Cutaneous Pathology 11/2014; 42(1). DOI:10.1111/cup.12440 · 1.56 Impact Factor