Oxidative stress and medical antioxidant treatment in male infertility.
ABSTRACT Oxidative stress (OS) has been recognized as one of the most important cause of male infertility. Despite the antioxidant activity of seminal plasma, epididymis and spermatozoa, OS damages sperm function and DNA integrity. Since antioxidants suppress the action of reactive oxygen species, these compounds have been used in the medical treatment of male infertility or have been added to the culture medium during sperm separation techniques. Nevertheless, the efficacy of such a treatment has been reported to be very limited. This may relate to: (i) patient selection bias; (ii) late diagnosis of male infertility; (iii) lack of double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial; and/or (iv) use of end-points that are not good markers of the presence of OS. This review considers the effects of the main antioxidant compounds used in clinical practice. Overall, the data published suggest that no single antioxidant is able to enhance fertilizing capability in infertile men, whereas a combination of them seems to provide a better approach. Taking into account the pros and the cons of antioxidant treatment of male infertility, the potential advantages that it offers cannot be ignored. Therefore, antioxidant therapy should remain in the forefront of preventive medicine, including human reproductive medicine.
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ABSTRACT: Background/aim: Infertility is defined as the inability to conceive after at least 1 year of unprotected intercourse. In about one third of infertile couples, a male factor is the primary problem. Thus, the present study aimed to determine the most common risk factors for male infertility in Iranian men. Materials and methods: This case-control study included 268 men attending an infertility clinic in Shiraz, Iran. In this study, 161 fertile men were compared with 108 infertile ones regarding risk factors such as smoking habits, drug consumption, hernia, varicocele, job, and BMI. The data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis and t-test. Results: The mean age of the fertile and infertile participants was 37.5 ± 7 and 36.3 ± 10, respectively. Our findings demonstrated a statistically significant relationship between male infertility and hernia, varicocele, taking ranitidine, job, and BMI. With an increase of 1 cigarette per day, there was a 1% decrease in the motility of the sperm. Moreover, with an increase of 1 year of cigarette smoking, 800,000 sperm are lost. Conclusion: The results revealed varicocele and hernia as the most common risk factors in men attending the infertility clinics in Shiraz. In addition, strenuous work could cause testicular injury. Key words: Male infertility, varicocele, cigarette smoking, case-control, risk factorTurkish Journal of Medical Sciences 09/2014; 44:862-865. · 0.84 Impact Factor