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    ABSTRACT: Multiparametric quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (mqBOLD) magnetic resonance Imaging (MRI) approach allows mapping tissular oxygen saturation (StO2) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2). To identify hemodynamic alteration related to severe intracranial arterial stenosis (SIAS), functional MRI of cerebrovascular reserve (CVR BOLD fMRI) to hypercapnia has been proposed. Diffusion imaging suggests chronic low grade ischemia in patients with impaired CVR. The aim of the present study was to evaluate how oxygen parameters (StO2 and CMRO2), assessed with mqBOLD approach, correlate with CVR in patients (n = 12) with SIAS and without arterial occlusion. The perfusion (dynamic susceptibility contrast), oxygenation, and CVR were compared. The MRI protocol conducted at 3T lasted approximately 1 h. Regions of interest measures on maps were delineated on segmented gray matter (GM) of middle cerebral artery territories. We have shown that decreased CVR is spatially associated with decreased CMRO2 in GM of patients with SIAS. Further, the degree of ipsilateral CVR reduction was well-correlated with the amplitude of the CMRO2 deficit. The altered CMRO2 suggests the presence of a moderate ischemia explained by both a decrease in perfusion and in CVR. CVR and mqBOLD method may be helpful in the selection of patients with SIAS to advocate for medical therapy or percutaneous transluminal angioplasty-stenting. Hum Brain Mapp, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Human Brain Mapping 10/2014; 36(2). DOI:10.1002/hbm.22657 · 6.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with cognitive dysfunction and dementia. Brain imaging may provide important clues about underlying processes. This review focuses on the relationship between T2DM and brain abnormalities assessed with different imaging techniques: both structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), including diffusion tensor imaging and magnetic resonance spectroscopy, as well as positron emission tomography and single-photon emission computed tomography. Compared to people without diabetes, people with T2DM show slightly more global brain atrophy, which increases gradually over time compared with normal aging. Moreover, vascular lesions are seen more often, particularly lacunar infarcts. The association between T2DM and white matter hyperintensities and microbleeds is less clear. T2DM has been related to diminished cerebral blood flow and cerebrovascular reactivity, particularly in more advanced disease. Diffusion tensor imaging is a promising technique with respect to subtle white matter involvement. Thus, brain imaging studies show that T2DM is associated with both degenerative and vascular brain damage, which develops slowly over the course of many years. The challenge for future studies will be to further unravel the etiology of brain damage in T2DM, and to identify the small group of patients that will develop distinct progressive brain damage and cognitive decline.
    European neuropsychopharmacology: the journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology 12/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.euroneuro.2014.01.023 · 3.68 Impact Factor