Predictors of Serum Dioxins and PCBs among Peripubertal Russian Boys

Environmental and Occupational Medicine and Epidemiology Program, Department of Environmental Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
Environmental Health Perspectives (Impact Factor: 7.98). 10/2009; 117(10):1593-9. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.0800223
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Although sources and routes of exposure to dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have been studied, information regarding exposure among children is limited. Breast-feeding and diet are two important contributors to early life exposure. To further understand other significant contributors to childhood exposure, we studied a cohort of children from a city with high environmental dioxin levels.
We investigated predictors of serum concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs)/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs)/co-planar PCBs (C-PCBs), toxic equivalents (TEQs), and PCBs among 8- to 9-year-old boys in Chapaevsk, Russia.
We used general linear regression models to explore associations of log(10)-transformed serum concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs/C-PCBs, TEQs, and PCBs at study entry with anthropometric, demographic, geographic, and dietary factors in 482 boys in Chapaevsk, Russia.
The median (25th, 75th percentile) concentration for total 2005 TEQs was 21.1 pg/g lipid (14.4, 33.2). Boys who were older, consumed local foods, were breast-fed longer, and whose mothers were employed at the Khimprom chemical plant (where chlorinated chemicals were produced) or gardened locally had significantly higher serum dioxins and PCBs, whereas boys with higher body mass index or more educated parents had significantly lower serum dioxins and PCBs. Boys who lived < 2 km from Khimprom had higher total TEQs (picograms per gram lipid) [adjusted mean = 30.6; 95% confidence interval (CI), 26.8-35.0] than boys who lived > 5 km away (adjusted mean = 18.8; 95% CI, 17.2-20.6).
Our findings suggest that there are specific local sources of dioxin and PCB exposure among children in Chapaevsk including maternal gardening, consumption of locally grown food, and residential proximity to the Khimprom plant.

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Available from: Larisa Altshul, Sep 26, 2015
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    • "The authors (Pless-Mulloli et al. 2005) concluded that body burden of PCDD/F and PCBs was not a suitable biomarker for chronic, non-occupational exposure to industrial air pollution. In Russia, by contrast, boys who lived <2 km from chemical plant formerly producing organochlorinated compounds, Khimprom in Chapaevsk, had higher organochlorine levels than boys who lived >5 km away (Lam et al. 2013; Humblet et al. 2010; Burns et al. 2009). Potential meteorological conditions may explain some of these discrepant results, as well as disposal practises (e.g. on site, locally, or further away, and types of containers etc.) and duration between production and timing of sampling. "
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    ABSTRACT: We evaluated concentrations of 15 PCB congeners in blood serum of 2047 adults, 431 8-9-year old children and 1134 mother-child pairs born in 2001-2003. These subjects were long-standing residents living up to 70 km (to the north) and up to 50 km (to the south) of the former Chemko Strážske PCB production facility in the Michalovce district of Slovakia. We plotted serum concentration against distance from the plant both with and without consideration of the direction of their homes from the site. The decrease in exposure with distance could be described by an exponential function which was dependent on direction and climatic parameters. By kriging we created maps depicting predicted isoconcentration contours for sex- and age-adjusted serum concentration of ∑PCBs for the same group of children, adults and mothers. The principle of our risk analysis was to relate serum concentration data, reflecting PCB body burden, using the critical concentrations established by the French Agency for Food, Environmental and Occupational Health & Safety (ANSES 2010) as thresholds below which the probability of effects on health is regarded as negligible. We conclude that 10 years ago, around 200,000 residents were at risk in this densely populated area. Exposure has since decreased but the mechanism for this has not yet been studied.
    Environmental Science and Pollution Research 08/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11356-015-5047-9 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    • "It has also been suggested that this correlation with age may be related to differences in PCB metabolism, which is lower in elderly people (Bates et al., 2004; Fangstrom et al., 2005; Park et al., 2007; Schulz et al., 2009; Wolff et al., 2007). As regards the presence of PCBs in men and women, our results are consistent with the available literature (Agudo et al., 2009; Apostoli et al., 2005; Burns et al., 2009; Cerna et al., 2008; Henríquez-Hernández et al., 2011; Park et al., 2007; Petrik et al., 2006; Zubero et al., 2009) in which the sum of PCB congeners tended to be higher in men than in women. Some exceptions to this have been reported, such as the study by Porta and co-workers in Catalonia, in which women presented a statistically significantly higher median concentration of the most prevalent PCBs than men after adjusting for age and BMI (Porta et al., 2012). "
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    ABSTRACT: This manuscript presents the levels of six indicator polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners (IUPAC nos. 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) in the serum of 1880 individuals from a representative sample of the Spanish working population recruited between March 2009 and July 2010. Three out of the six PCBs studied (180, 153 and 138) were quantified in more than 99% of participants. PCB 180 was the highest contributor, followed by PCBs 153 and 138, with relative abundances of 42.6%, 33.2% and 24.2%, respectively. In contrast, PCBs 28 and 52 were detected in only 1% of samples, whereas PCB 101 was detectable in 6% of samples. The geometric mean (GM) for ΣPCBs138/153/180 was 135.4 ng/g lipid (95% CI: 121.3–151.2 ng/g lipid) and the 95th percentile was 482.2 ng/g lipid. Men had higher PCB blood concentrations than women (GMs 138.9 and 129.9 ng/g lipid respectively). As expected, serum PCB levels increased with age and frequency of fish consumption, particularly in those participants younger than 30 years of age. The highest levels we found were for participants from the Basque Country, whereas the lowest concentrations were found for those from the Canary Islands. The Spanish population studied herein had similar levels to those found previously in Greece and southern Italy, lower levels than those in France and central Europe, and higher PCB levels than those in the USA, Canada and New Zealand. This paper provides the first baseline information regarding PCB exposure in the Spanish adult population on a national scale. The results will allow us to establish reference levels, follow temporal trends and identify high-exposure groups, as well as monitor implementation of the Stockholm Convention in Spain.
    Science of The Total Environment 09/2014; 493:834-844. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.06.077 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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    • "PCBs accumulate in the food chain (Startin, 1994) and can be detected in virtually all humans (Patterson et al., 2009). Ingestion of contaminated food products, especially fish and livestock , is often an important pathway of exposure to PCBs (Burns et al., 2009; Hovinga et al., 1992; Humblet et al., 2010; Humphrey and Budd, 1996; Kreiss et al., 1981; Schecter et al., 2001; Sjödin et al., 2000; Startin, 1994). Demographic factors such as age, sex and body mass index (BMI) have also been shown to be important predictors of PCBs in non-occupationally exposed populations (Agudo et al., 2009; Bräuner et al., 2011; Choi et al., 2006; Garabrant et al., 2009; Laden et al., 1999; Tee et al., 2003). "
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    ABSTRACT: The Anniston Community Health Survey was a community-based cross-sectional study of Anniston, Alabama, residents who live in close proximity to a former PCB production facility to identify factors associated with serum PCB levels. The survey comprises 765 Anniston residents who completed a questionnaire interview and provided a blood sample for analysis in 2005-2007. Several reports based on data from the Anniston survey have been previously published, including associations between PCB exposure and diabetes and blood pressure. In this study we examine demographic, behavioral, dietary, and occupational characteristics of Anniston survey participants as predictors of serum PCB concentrations. Of the 765 participants, 54% were White and 45% were African-American; the sample was predominantly female (70%), with a mean age of 55years. Serum PCB concentrations varied widely between participants (range for sum of 35 PCBs: 0.11-170.4ng/g wet weight). Linear regression models with stepwise selection were employed to examine factors associated with serum PCBs. Statistically significant positive associations were observed between serum PCB concentrations and age, race, residential variables, current smoking, and local fish consumption, as was a negative association with education level. Age and race were the most influential predictors of serum PCB levels. A small age by sex interaction was noted, indicating that the increase in PCB levels with age was steeper for women than for men. Significant interaction terms indicated that the associations between PCB levels and having ever eaten locally raised livestock and local clay were much stronger among African-Americans than among White participants. In summary, demographic variables and past consumption of locally produced foods were found to be the most important predictors of PCB concentrations in residents living in the vicinity of a former PCB manufacturing facility.
    Science of The Total Environment 07/2014; 496. DOI:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2014.06.113 · 4.10 Impact Factor
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