Article

Aberrant inflammatory response to Streptococcus pyogenes in mice lacking myeloid differentiation factor 88.

Department of Microbial Pathogenesis, Infection Immunology Research Group, Helmholtz Centre for Infection Research, D-38124 Braunschweig, Germany.
American Journal Of Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.52). 12/2009; 176(2):754-63. DOI: 10.2353/ajpath.2010.090422
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Several in vitro studies have emphasized the importance of toll-like receptor/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling in the inflammatory response to Streptococcus pyogenes. Since the extent of inflammation has been implicated in the severity of streptococcal diseases, we have examined here the role of toll-like receptor/MyD88 signaling in the pathophysiology of experimental S. pyogenes infection. To this end, we compared the response of MyD88-knockout (MyD88(-/-)) after subcutaneous inoculation with S. pyogenes with that of C57BL/6 mice. Our results show that MyD88(-/-) mice harbored significantly more bacteria in the organs and succumbed to infection much earlier than C57BL/6 animals. Absence of MyD88 resulted in diminished production of inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-12, interferon-gamma, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha as well as chemoattractants such as monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and Keratinocyte-derived chemokine (KC), and hampered recruitment of effector cells involved in bacterial clearance (macrophages and neutrophils) to the infection site. Furthermore, MyD88(-/-) but not C57BL/6 mice exhibited a massive infiltration of eosinophils in infected organs, which can be explained by an impaired production of the regulatory chemokines, gamma interferon-induced monokine (MIG/CXCL9) and interferon-induced protein 10 (IP-10/CXCL10), which can inhibit transmigration of eosinophils. Our results indicate that MyD88 signaling targets effector cells to the site of streptococcal infection and prevents extravasation of cells that can induce tissue damage. Therefore, MyD88 signaling may be important for shaping the quality of the inflammatory response elicited during infection to ensure optimal effector functions.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
79 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In prior studies, we demonstrated that 1) CXCL1/KC is essential for NF-κB and MAPK activation and expression of CXCL2/MIP-2 and CXCL5/LPS-induced CXC chemokine in Klebsiella-infected lungs, and 2) CXCL1 derived from hematopoietic and resident cells contributes to host immunity against Klebsiella. However, the role of CXCL1 in mediating neutrophil leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) production is unclear, as is the contribution of these factors to host immunity. In this study, we investigated 1) the role of CXCL1 in LTB(4), NADPH oxidase, and inducible NO synthase (iNOS) expression in lungs and neutrophils, and 2) whether LTB(4) postinfection reverses innate immune defects in CXCL1(-/-) mice via regulation of NADPH oxidase and iNOS. Our results demonstrate reduced neutrophil influx, attenuated LTB(4) levels, and decreased ROS and iNOS production in the lungs of CXCL1(-/-) mice after Klebsiella pneumoniae infection. Using neutrophil depletion and repletion, we found that neutrophils are the predominant source of pulmonary LTB(4) after infection. To treat immune defects in CXCL1(-/-) mice, we intrapulmonarily administered LTB(4). Postinfection, LTB(4) treatment reversed immune defects in CXCL1(-/-) mice and improved survival, neutrophil recruitment, cytokine/chemokine expression, NF-κB/MAPK activation, and ROS/RNS production. LTB(4) also enhanced myeloperoxidase, H(2)O(2,) RNS production, and bacterial killing in K. pneumoniae-infected CXCL1(-/-) neutrophils. These novel results uncover important roles for CXCL1 in generating ROS and RNS in neutrophils and in regulating host immunity against K. pneumoniae infection. Our findings suggest that LTB(4) could be used to correct defects in neutrophil recruitment and function in individuals lacking or expressing malfunctional CXCL1.
    The Journal of Immunology 02/2012; 188(7):3458-68. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mitochondria play a critical role in cell survival and death. Mitochondrial recovery during inflammatory processes such as sepsis is associated with cell survival. Recovery of cellular respiration, mitochondrial biogenesis, and function requires coordinated expression of transcription factors encoded by nuclear and mitochondrial genes, including mitochondrial transcription factor A (T-fam) and cytochrome c oxidase (COX, complex IV). LPS elicits strong host defenses in mammals with pronounced inflammatory responses, but also triggers activation of survival pathways such as AKT pathway. AKT/PKB is a serine/threonine protein kinase that plays an important role in cell survival, protein synthesis, and controlled inflammation in response to TLRs. Hence we investigated the role of LPS-mediated AKT activation in mitochondrial bioenergetics and function in cultured murine macrophages (B6-MCL) and bone marrow-derived macrophages. We show that LPS challenge led to increased expression of T-fam and COX subunits I and IV in a time-dependent manner through early phosphorylation of the PI3K/AKT pathway. PI3K/AKT pathway inhibitors abrogated LPS-mediated T-fam and COX induction. Lack of induction was associated with decreased ATP production, increased proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α), NO production, and cell death. The TLR4-mediated AKT activation and mitochondrial biogenesis required activation of adaptor protein MyD88 and Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor-inducing IFN-β. Importantly, using a genetic approach, we show that the AKT1 isoform is pivotal in regulating mitochondrial biogenesis in response to TLR4 agonist.
    The Journal of Immunology 03/2012; 188(6):2847-57. · 5.52 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Most Toll-like-receptors (TLRs) and interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs) signal via myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4). The combined roles of these two receptor families in the course of experimental infections have been assessed in MyD88- and IRAK-4-deficient mice for almost fifteen years. These animals have been shown to be susceptible to 46 pathogens: 27 bacteria, eight viruses, seven parasites, and four fungi. Humans with inborn MyD88 or IRAK-4 deficiency were first identified in 2003. They suffer from naturally occurring life-threatening infections caused by a small number of bacterial species, although the incidence and severity of these infections decrease with age. Mouse TLR- and IL-1R-dependent immunity mediated by MyD88 and IRAK-4 seems to be vital to combat a wide array of experimentally administered pathogens at most ages. By contrast, human TLR- and IL-1R-dependent immunity mediated by MyD88 and IRAK-4 seems to be effective in the natural setting against only a few bacteria and is most important in infancy and early childhood. The roles of TLRs and IL-1Rs in protective immunity deduced from studies in mutant mice subjected to experimental infections should therefore be reconsidered in the light of findings for natural infections in humans carrying mutations as discussed in this review.
    European Journal of Immunology 12/2012; 42(12):3126-35. · 4.97 Impact Factor

Full-text (2 Sources)

View
1 Download
Available from
Aug 15, 2014