Cigarette Smoking and Mortality Risk in People With Schizophrenia

Maryland Psychiatric Research Center, University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21228, USA.
Schizophrenia Bulletin (Impact Factor: 8.45). 12/2009; 37(4):832-8. DOI: 10.1093/schbul/sbp152
Source: PubMed


This study examined effects of cigarette smoking on mortality risk in 1213 persons aged 19-69 years with schizophrenia-related psychotic disorders admitted to State of Maryland Hospitals between 1994 and 2000. Inpatient medical records from 7 hospitals were reviewed to obtain demographic information, diagnosis, medication use, as well as smoking and other substance use. Social Security Death Index data were used to identify deaths in the study group between 1994 and 2004. Death records were reviewed to obtain manner of death and underlying disorders. Of the 1213, 55% were smokers and 71% abused substances. There was an age × smoking interaction (χ(2) = 14.6, df = 1, P = .0001) for mortality, with estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for smokers vs nonsmokers of 2.1 among 35- to 54-year olds and HR of 0.7 among those aged 55-69 years. Five- and 10-year mortality rates for smokers aged 35-54 years were 7.0% and 14.2%, compared with 3.3% and 10.0% for nonsmokers, respectively (χ(2) = 5.53, df = 1, P = .019). Cardiac causes were identified in 43% of deaths in smokers but only 19% of deaths in nonsmokers (P < .006). For those aged 35-54 years, the odds of cardiac related death was increased by 12 fold in smokers relative to nonsmokers (HR = 12.4, χ(2) = 12.0, df = 1, P = .0005). Among people aged 35-54 years, those smoking greater than one pack daily have a significantly increased total mortality risk (HR = 2.7) vs nonsmokers. Cigarette smoking, particularly in people aged 35-54 years, contributes to an increased risk of death. Greater smoking severity significantly increases this risk. Smoking cessation in people with schizophrenia deserves significant attention.

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    • "The T cells are also being associated with psychopathological symptoms and the outcome of neuroleptic treatment in schizophrenia (Muller et al. 1991; 1993). Cigarette smoking causes high mortality in schizophrenia patients (Kelly et al. 2011). Interestingly, cigarette smoking was found to be associated with increased T-cell proliferation in schizophrenia patients (Herberth et al. 2010). "
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    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a severe and highly complex neurodevelopmental disorder with an unknown etiopathology. Recently, immunopathogenesis has emerged as one of the most compelling etiological models of schizophrenia. Over the past few years considerable research has been devoted to the role of innate immune responses in schizophrenia. The findings of such studies have helped to conceptualize schizophrenia as a chronic low-grade inflammatory disorder. Although the contribution of adaptive immune responses has also been emphasized, however, the precise role of T cells in the underlying neurobiological pathways of schizophrenia is yet to be ascertained comprehensively. T cells have the ability to infiltrate brain and mediate neuro-immune cross-talk. Conversely, the central nervous system and the neurotransmitters are capable of regulating the immune system. Neurotransmitter like dopamine, implicated widely in schizophrenia risk and progression can modulate the proliferation, trafficking and functions of T cells. Within brain, T cells activate microglia, induce production of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as reactive oxygen species and subsequently lead to neuroinflammation. Importantly, such processes contribute to neuronal injury/death and are gradually being implicated as mediators of neuroprogressive changes in schizophrenia. Antipsychotic drugs, commonly used to treat schizophrenia are also known to affect adaptive immune system; interfere with the differentiation and functions of T cells. This understanding suggests a pivotal role of T cells in the etiology, course and treatment of schizophrenia and forms the basis of this review.
    Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology 07/2015; DOI:10.1007/s11481-015-9626-9 · 4.11 Impact Factor
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    • "Asian J. Psychiatry (2014), 2008). Although the high prevalence of tobacco use among psychotic patients could be explained by the self-medication hypothesis, many disadvantages from smoking in psychotic patients, such as the need for higher dose of antipsychotic (Krishnadas et al., 2012; Salokangas et al., 2006), increased risk of tardive dyskinesia (Chong et al., 2003), increased illness severity (Vanable et al., 2003) and increased risk of cardiovascular disease (Dervaux and Laqueille, 2008; Kelly et al., 2011) has also been reported. This finding thus suggests the need to educate Thai psychotic patients, their relatives and mental healthcare workers, about the risks and harms associated with tobacco use and to provide interventions to reduce its use. "
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    ABSTRACT: Co-occurring substance use in psychotic patients causes many subsequences including increased illness severity, decreased medication compliance, higher relapse rates, more hospitalizations, and legal problems. We aim to investigate the prevalence, patterns, associated factors and severity of substance use risk among psychotic patients in southern Thailand. Psychotic out-patients were screened with the Alcohol, Smoking, Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) for their history of substance use in the past three months and categorized as None-to-Low Risk (NLR) or Moderate-to-High Risk (MHR) levels. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine the associated factors of substance use risk-level. The associations between substance use risk-level and emotional and behavioural symptoms, functional status and family functional status were examined using multivariate linear regression analysis. Of 663 participants screened, 322 (48.6%) used at least one substance in the past three months. Tobacco was the most common substance used (47.2%). The factors associated with a higher risk of any substance use were male gender, young age group, low level of education, being employed and being diagnosed with schizophrenia. A higher number of emotional and behavioural symptoms was significantly associated with higher substance use risk-level. In conclusion, the prevalence of substance use in psychotic patients was high and associated with their emotional and behavioural symptoms. Recommendations for implementation of screening and early intervention programs of substance-related problems in psychotic patients are important for preventing unwanted outcomes.
    Asian Journal of Psychiatry 11/2014; 13. DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2014.11.006
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    • "Chronic cigarette smoking has been suggested as a major contributing factor to higher morbidity and mortality in schizophrenic patients, especially in people aged 35 to 54 years [15]. In addition to such adverse health effects, cigarette smoking clearly represents a huge financial burden on patients with schizophrenia. "
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    ABSTRACT: It is well established in studies across several countries that tobacco smoking is more prevalent among schizophrenic patients than the general population. Electronic cigarettes are becoming increasingly popular with smokers worldwide. To date there are no large randomized trials of electronic cigarettes in schizophrenic smokers. A well-designed trial is needed to compare efficacy and safety of these products in this special population.Methods/design: Intervention: We have designed a randomized controlled trial investigating the efficacy and safety of electronic cigarette. The trial will take the form of a prospective 12-month randomized clinical study to evaluate smoking reduction, smoking abstinence and adverse events in schizophrenic smokers not intending to quit. We will also monitor quality of life, neurocognitive functioning and measure participants' perception and satisfaction of the product.Outcome measures: A >=50% reduction in the number of cigarettes/day from baseline, will be calculated at each study visit ("reducers"). Abstinence from smoking will be calculated at each study visit ("quitters"). Smokers who leave the study protocol before its completion and will carry out the Early Termination Visit or who will not satisfy the criteria of "reducers" and "quitters" will be defined "non responders".Statistical analysis: The differences of continuous variables between the three groups will be evaluated with the Kruskal-Wallis Test, followed by the Dunn multiple comparison test. The differences between the three groups for normally distributed data will be evaluated with ANOVA test one way, followed by the Newman-Keuls multiple comparison test. The normality of the distribution will be evaluated with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Any correlations between the variables under evaluation will be assessed by Spearman r correlation. To compare qualitative data will be used the Chi-square test. The main strengths of the SCARIS study are the following: it's the first large RCT on schizophrenic patient, involving in and outpatient, evaluating the effect of a three-arm study design, and a long term of follow-up (52-weeks).The goal is to propose an effective intervention to reduce the risk of tobacco smoking, as a complementary tool to treat tobacco addiction in schizophrenia.Trial registration: NCT01979796.
    Trials 03/2014; 15(1):88. DOI:10.1186/1745-6215-15-88 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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