Recombination-induced tag exchange to track old and new proteins.
ABSTRACT The dynamic behavior of proteins is critical for cellular homeostasis. However, analyzing dynamics of proteins and protein complexes in vivo has been difficult. Here we describe recombination-induced tag exchange (RITE), a genetic method that induces a permanent epitope-tag switch in the coding sequence after a hormone-induced activation of Cre recombinase. The time-controlled tag switch provides a unique ability to detect and separate old and new proteins in time and space, which opens up opportunities to investigate the dynamic behavior of proteins. We validated the technology by determining exchange of endogenous histones in chromatin by biochemical methods and by visualizing and quantifying replacement of old by new proteasomes in single cells by microscopy. RITE is widely applicable and allows probing spatiotemporal changes in protein properties by multiple methods.
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ABSTRACT: Nucleosome composition actively contributes to chromatin structure and accessibility. Cells have developed mechanisms to remove or recycle histones, generating a landscape of differentially aged nucleosomes. This study aimed to create a high-resolution genome-wide map of nucleosome turnover in Schizosaccharomyces pombe. The recombination-induced tag exchange (RITE) method was used to study replication-independent nucleosome turnover through the appearance of new histone H3 and the disappearance or preservation of old histone H3. The genome-wide location of histones was determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation-exonuclease methodology (ChIP-exo). The findings were compared with diverse chromatin marks, including histone variant H2A.Z, post-translational histone modifications, and Pol II binding. Finally genome-wide mapping of the methylation states of H4K20 was performed to determine the relationship between methylation (mono, di and tri) of this residue and nucleosome turnover. Our analysis showed that histone recycling resulted in low nucleosome turnover in the coding regions of active genes, stably expressed at intermediate levels. High levels of transcription resulted in the incorporation of new histones primarily at the end of transcribed units. H4K20 was methylated in low-turnover nucleosomes in euchromatic regions, notably in the coding regions of long genes that were expressed at low levels. This transcription-dependent accumulation of histone methylation was dependent on the histone chaperone complex FACT. Our data showed that nucleosome turnover is highly dynamic in the genome and several mechanisms are at play to either maintain or suppress stability. In particular, we found that FACT-associated transcription conserves histones by recycling them and is required for progressive H4K20 methylation. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.Genome Research 03/2015; DOI:10.1101/gr.188870.114 · 13.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The packaging of DNA into strings of nucleosomes is one of the features that allows eukaryotic cells to tightly regulate gene expression. The ordered disassembly of nucleosomes permits RNA polymerase II (Pol II) to access the DNA, whereas nucleosomal reassembly impedes access, thus preventing transcription and mRNA synthesis. Chromatin modifications, chromatin remodellers, histone chaperones and histone variants regulate nucleosomal dynamics during transcription. Disregulation of nucleosome dynamics results in aberrant transcription initiation, producing non-coding RNAs. Ongoing research is elucidating the molecular mechanisms that regulate chromatin structure during transcription by preventing histone exchange, thereby limiting non-coding RNA expression.Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/nrm3941 · 36.46 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The scarcity of molecular tools for genetic manipulation is a critical obstacle for functional genomics studies on Trypanosoma cruzi. The current study adapted an inducible site-specific recombination system based on Dimerizable CRE recombinase (DiCRE). Two vectors for stable transfection were created, a first one to express inactive portions of DiCRE recombinase, and a second plasmid containing the loxP sites to test DiCRE activity. After integrating both constructs into the T.cruzi genome, it was shown that DiCRE recombinase can be efficiently used to manipulate its genome by allowing the removal of selectable markers thus generating homogeneous populations. The DiCRE recombinase success allows conditional knockout and the removal of selectable markers without prior parasite modification, which also facilitate the transferring of DiCRE recombinase to different T.cruzi strains. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology 01/2015; 198(2). DOI:10.1016/j.molbiopara.2015.01.001 · 2.24 Impact Factor