Article

Neurons Preferentially Respond to Self-MHC Class I Allele Products Regardless of Peptide Presented

Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90024, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 5.36). 12/2009; 184(2):816-23. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.0902159
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Studies of mice lacking MHC class I (MHC I)-associated proteins have demonstrated a role for MHC I in neurodevelopment. A central question arising from these observations is whether neuronal recognition of MHC I has specificity for the MHC I allele product and the peptide presented. Using a well-established embryonic retina explant system, we observed that picomolar levels of a recombinant self-MHC I molecule inhibited neurite outgrowth. We then assessed the neurobiological activity of a panel of recombinant soluble MHC Is, consisting of different MHC I heavy chains with a defined self- or nonself-peptide presented, on cultured embryonic retinas from mice with different MHC I haplotypes. We observed that self-MHC I allele products had greater inhibitory neuroactivity than nonself-MHC I molecules, regardless of the nature of the peptide presented, a pattern akin to MHC I recognition by some innate immune system receptors. However, self-MHC I molecules had no effect on retinas from MHC I-deficient mice. These observations suggest that neuronal recognition of MHC I may be coordinated with the inherited MHC I alleles, as occurs in the innate immune system. Consistent with this notion, we show that MHC I and MHC I receptors are coexpressed by precursor cells at the earliest stages of retina development, which could enable such coordination.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Sebastian Joyce, Feb 04, 2014
0 Followers
 · 
201 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Schizophrenia is a chronic debilitating neuropsychiatric disorder with a complex genetic contribution. Although multiple genetic, immunological and environmental factors are known to contribute to schizophrenia susceptibility, the underlying neurobiological mechanism(s) is yet to be established. The immune system dysfunction theory of schizophrenia is experiencing a period of renewal due to a growth in evidence implicating components of the immune system in brain function and human behavior. Current evidence indicates that certain immune molecules such as Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) and cytokines, the key regulators of immunity and inflammation are directly involved in the neurobiological processes related to neurodevelopment, neuronal plasticity, learning, memory and behavior. However, the strongest support in favor of the immune hypothesis has recently emerged from on-going genome wide association studies advocating MHC region variants as major determinants of one's risk for developing schizophrenia. Further identification of the interacting partners and receptors of MHC molecules in the brain and their role in down-stream signaling pathways of neurotransmission have implicated these molecules as potential schizophrenia risk factors. More recently, combined brain imaging and genetic studies have revealed a relationship between genetic variations within the MHC region and neuromorphometric changes during schizophrenia. Furthermore, MHC molecules play a significant role in the immune-infective and neurodevelopmental pathogenetic pathways, currently hypothesized to contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Herein, we review the immunological, genetic and expression studies assessing the role of the MHC in conferring risk for developing schizophrenia, we summarize and discuss the possible mechanisms involved, making note of the challenges to, and future directions of, immunogenetic research in schizophrenia.
    Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry 01/2012; 42(doi: 10.1016/j.pnpbp.2012.07.009). DOI:10.1016/j.pnpbp.2012.07.009 · 4.03 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Many proteins in the immune system are also expressed in the brain. One such class of immune proteins are T-cell receptors (TCRs), whose functions in T lymphocytes in adaptive immunity are well characterized. In the brain, TCRs are confined to neocortical neurons, but their functional role has not been determined. In mouse layer 1 neocortical neurons, TCR activation inhibited α7 nicotinic currents. TCRs modulated α7 currents via tyrosine phosphorylation of α7 nicotinic receptors (nAChRs) through src tyrosine kinases because eliminating lck kinase expression, coexpressing fyn kinase dead, or mutating tyrosine to alanine in α7 blocked the effect of TCR activation. We found that TCR stimulation decreased surface α7 nAChRs and reduced single-channel conductance. These results reveal that TCRs play a major role in the modulation of cholinergic neurotransmission in the brain mediated by α7 nAChRs and that this has a profound effect on regulating neuronal excitability.
    The Journal of Neuroscience : The Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience 01/2014; 34(1):22-35. DOI:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2093-13.2014 · 6.75 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The neurobiological activities of classical major histocompatibility class I (MHCI) molecules are just beginning to be explored. To further examine MHCI's actions during the formation of neuronal connections, we cultured embryonic mouse retina explants a short distance from wildtype thalamic explants, or thalami from transgenic mice (termed "NSE-Db") whose neurons express higher levels of MHCI. While retina neurites extended to form connections with wildtype thalami, we were surprised to find that retina neurite outgrowth was very stunted in regions proximal to NSE-Db thalamic explants, suggesting that a diffusible factor from these thalami inhibited retina neurite outgrowth. It has been long known that MHCI-expressing cells release soluble forms of MHCI (sMHCI) due to the shedding of intact MHCI molecules, as well as the alternative exon splicing of its heavy chain or the action proteases which cleave off it's transmembrane anchor. We show that the diffusible inhibitory factor from the NSE-Db thalami is sMHCI. We also show that COS cells programmed to express murine MHCI release sMHCI that inhibits neurite outgrowth from nearby neurons in vitro. The neuroinhibitory effect of sMHCI could be blocked by lowering cAMP levels, suggesting that the neuronal MHCI receptor's signaling mechanism involves a cyclic nucleotide-dependent pathway. Our results suggest that MHCI may not only have neurobiological activity in its membrane-bound form, it may also influence local neurons as a soluble molecule. We discuss the involvement of complement proteins in generating sMHCI and new theoretical models of MHCI's biological activities in the nervous system.
    PLoS ONE 03/2011; 6(3):e18439. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0018439 · 3.53 Impact Factor