GnRH-II mRNA expression in tumor tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with malignant and benign ovarian tumors.
ABSTRACT To investigate the expression of the second form of GnRH (GnRH-II) in tumor tissue and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in malignant and benign ovarian tumors in humans.
Sixty-six women were studied: 24 with epithelial ovarian carcinomas, 22 with benign ovarian tumors and 20 in the control group undergoing surgery. Malignant, benign and normal ovarian tissue and PBMCs were obtained for measurement of GnRH-II mRNA levels using quantitative real-time RT-PCR.
The expression of GnRH-II was found to be 1.5 times higher in malignant ovarian tumors compared with benign ovarian tumors and the control group in post-menopausal patients (P<0.01). In the post-menopausal patient group with malignant ovarian tumors, there were significant positive correlations between serum FSH level and ovarian tissue GnRH-II mRNA expression (r=0.68; P=0.03), and serum LH level and ovarian tissue GnRH-II mRNA expression (r=0.71; P=0.02). Controls, benign and malignant groups were similar in terms of GnRH-II expression in PBMCs in the pre- and post-menopausal periods. There was no significant correlation between ovarian tissue GnRH-II mRNA expression vs. PBMC GnRH-II mRNA expression in patient and control groups.
We have shown increased GnRH-II expression in human ovarian cancer tissue in post-menopausal women in vivo. Expression of GnRH-II in PBMCs did not reflect the local GnRH-II expression levels in ovarian tissue. These preliminary data suggest that local GnRH-II may participate in the regulation of ovarian tumor growth in post-menopausal women.
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ABSTRACT: The presence and conservation of GnRH2 across vertebrate species suggest important biological roles. However, the function of GnRH2 remains unclear. A good research model for GnRH2 functional studies is still lacking largely due to the absence of GnRH2 in the widely used mouse model. Hence, we used the zebrafish, for which powerful genetic tools are available, and developed a transgenic (Tg) line expressing enhanced green fluorescence protein (eGFP). The high sensitivity of eGFP, which can diffuse throughout the neuron, enables us to document the complete projectome of GnRH2 neurons at different developmental stages. Fine projection structures were observed without sacrificing the fish. Crossed with the GnRH3:tdTomato Tg line, the GnRH2:eGFP Tg line provides us with an opportunity to visualize the entire GnRH system simultaneously in one organism. This work will provide a framework to understand the function of the highly-conserved GnRH2 system.Scientific Reports 01/2014; 4:3676. · 5.08 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptors are not only detected in the central nervous system but also in tissues such as ovary, endometrium, breast, gastrointestinal system, placenta and malignant tumors of ovary and breast. The direct role of GnRH-antagonists in ovarian function, implantation, cancer pathogenesis and treatment is under extensive investigation. This study reviews the biochemistry and molecular and cellular biology of GnRH-antagonists as well as GnRH types and their receptors. The best clinical evidence with GnRH-antagonists has accumulated in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation protocols for prevention of premature luteinizing hormone surge (cetrorelix, ganirelix) and in the treatment of advanced-stage prostate cancer (abarelix and degarelix). GnRH-GnRH receptor pathways may have a role in the embryo implantation. The controversy still exists whether GnRH antagonist protocols result in slightly decreased clinical pregnancy rates compared with the GnRH agonist protocols. GnRH-antagonists could be used in the near future to treat some cancer types that express GnRH receptors. GnRH-antagonists have various clinical applications in gynecology, reproductive medicine, urology and oncology. The emergence of well tolerated, orally active GnRH-antagonists may provide an alternative to long-term injections and is likely to have a major impact on the utility of GnRH analogues in the treatment of human diseases.Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology 06/2011; 23(4):238-44. · 2.49 Impact Factor