Death in the United States, 2007.
ABSTRACT KEY FINDINGS: Data from the National Vital Statistics System, Mortality In 2007, the age-adjusted death rate for the United States reached a record low of 760.3 per 100,000 population. Life expectancy at birth reached a record high of 77.9 years. States in the southeast region have higher death rates than those in other regions of the country. In 2007, the five leading causes of death were heart disease, cancer, stroke, chronic lower respiratory diseases, and accidents. These accounted for over 64 percent of all deaths in the United States. White females have the longest life expectancy (80.7 years), followed by black females (77.0 years). The gap in life expectancy between white persons and black persons declined by 35 percent between 1989 and 2007. The race differential was 4.6 years in 2007.
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ABSTRACT: There is speculation that the volume of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) has been decreasing over the past several years. Published studies of PCI volume have evaluated regional or hospital trends, but few have captured national data. This study describes the use of coronary angiography and revascularization methods in Medicare patients from 2001 to 2009. This retrospective study used data from the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services from 2001 to 2009. The annual number of coronary angiograms, PCI, intravascular ultrasound, fractional flow reserve, and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery procedures were determined from billing data and adjusted for the number of Medicare recipients. From 2001 to 2009, the average year-to-year increase for PCI was 1.3% per 1000 beneficiaries, whereas the mean annual decrease for CABG surgery was 5%. However, the increase in PCI volume occurred primarily from 2001 to 2004, as there was a mean annual rate of decline of 2.5% from 2004 to 2009; similar trends were seen with diagnostic angiography. The use of intravascular ultrasound and fractional flow reserve steadily increased over time. This study confirms recent speculation that PCI volume has begun to decrease. Although rates of CABG have waned for several decades, all forms of coronary revascularization have been declining since 2004.Circulation Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes 02/2011; 4(2):193-7. DOI:10.1161/CIRCOUTCOMES.110.958744 · 5.04 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Overexpressed receptors, characteristic of many cancers, have been targeted by various researchers to achieve a more specific treatment for cancer. A common approach is to use the natural ligand for the overexpressed receptor as a cancer-targeting agent which can deliver a chemically or genetically conjugated toxic molecule. However, it has been found that the therapeutic efficacy of such ligand-drug molecular conjugates can be limited, since they naturally follow the intracellular trafficking pathways of the endogenous ligands. Therefore, a thorough understanding of the intracellular trafficking properties of these ligands can lead to novel design criteria for engineering ligands to be more effective drug carriers. This review presents a few commonly used ligand/receptor systems where intracellular trafficking considerations can potentially improve the therapeutic efficacy of the ligand-drug molecular conjugates.Annals of Biomedical Engineering 02/2011; 39(4):1235-51. DOI:10.1007/s10439-011-0280-y · 3.23 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Conventional algorithms and noninvasive imaging tests for the identification of stable, hemodynamically significant coronary artery disease offer little insight into the detection of potentially vulnerable and inflamed coronary plaques, those most likely to rupture and cause acute coronary syndromes. Positron emission tomography (PET) with fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) serves as a potential novel modality for the identification of plaque inflammation, as initial studies in animal and human studies have demonstrated that FDG uptake correlates with macrophage accumulation and inflammation. Therapy with anti-inflammatory agents has also been demonstrated in the arterial vasculature to reduce plaque FDG uptake. Although imaging of coronary inflammation with FDG-PET holds tremendous promise, several hurdles remain to be surmounted prior to widespread clinical application.Current Cardiology Reports 04/2011; 13(2):138-44. DOI:10.1007/s11886-011-0168-3