Hepatic stellate cells only produce fibronectin isoforms in disease states. The isoform-defining domains can be detected in the blood circulation. This study examines whether circulating levels of fibronectin isoforms show a relationship with liver fibrosis on histology in patients with chronic hepatitis C.
In a prospective study, 50 patients with chronic hepatitis C who underwent a liver biopsy were compared to 50 matched controls and 35 patients with other liver conditions.
Circulating levels of the fibronectin isoforms were significantly higher in patients with chronic hepatitis C compared to healthy controls [oncofetal fibronectin (oFN) 2.45 +/- 0.17 versus 1.76 +/- 0.16 mg/l, P < 0.005; extra domain-A (EDA) 1.05 +/- 0.06 versus 0.86 +/- 0.06 mg/l, P < 0.05; and extra domain-B (EDB) 14.55 +/- 0.74 versus 9.31 +/- 0.58 mg/l, P < 0.001], even though total fibronectin was lower (198.9 +/- 3.5 versus 343.6 +/- 14.5 mg/l, P < 0.001). A correlation with the fibrosis score was found for both oFN (r = 0.46, P < 0.005) and EDA (r = 0.51, P < 0.001). The combination of an elevation in both markers (oFN and EDA) in the upper quartile was associated with a specificity of > 99% for predicting significant fibrosis (stages 2-4) and 95% for predicting advanced fibrosis (stages 3-4). A combination of decreased values in the lowest tertile for both markers had a specificity of 94% for excluding significant fibrosis. Based on these findings, 30% of the patients scheduled for a liver biopsy could be correctly classified as having or not having significant fibrosis. The remainder would have to proceed with a biopsy.
Circulating fibronectin isoforms produced by activated stellate cells represent a viable marker for the presence of significant fibrosis or a lack thereof.
"It further regulates cell proliferation and cell cycle progression . We have shown that two isoforms of fibronectin reflect the severity of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C raising the possibility that fibronectin itself may play a role in the pathogenesis of fibrosis . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Fibrotic tissue in the liver is mainly composed of collagen. Fibronectin, which is also present in fibrotic matrices, is required for collagen matrix assembly in vitro. It also modulates the amount of growth factors and their release from the matrix. We therefore examined the effects of the absence of fibronectin on the development of fibrosis in mice.
Conditional deletion of fibronectin in the liver using the Mx promoter to drive cre expression resulted in increased collagen production and hence a more pronounced fibrosis in response to dimethylnitrosamine in mice. Exclusive deletion of fibronectin in hepatocytes or normalization of circulating fibronectin in Mx-cKO mice did not affect the development of fibrosis suggesting a role for fibronectin production by other liver cell types. The boosted fibrosis in fibronectin-deficient mice was associated with enhanced stellate cell activation and proliferation, elevated concentrations of active TGF-β, and increased TGF-β-mediated signaling.
In vitro experiments revealed that collagen-type-I production by fibronectin-deficient hepatic stellate cells stimulated with TGF-β was more pronounced, and was associated with augmented Smad3-mediated signaling. Interfering with TGF-β signaling using SB431542 normalized collagen-type-I production in fibronectin-deficient hepatic stellate cells. Furthermore, precoating culture plates with fibronectin, but not collagen, or providing fibronectin fibrils unable to interact with RGD binding integrins via the RGD domain significantly diminished the amount of active TGF-β in fibronectin-deficient stellate cells and normalized collagen-type-I production in response to TGF-β stimulation. Thus, excessive stellate cell activation and production of collagen results from increased active TGF-β and TGF-β signaling in the absence of fibronectin.
In conclusion, our data indicate that fibronectin controls the availability of active TGF-β in the injured liver, which impacts the severity of the resulting fibrosis. We therefore propose a novel role for locally produced fibronectin in protecting the liver from an excessive TGF-β-mediated response.
PLoS ONE 11/2011; 6(11):e28181. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0028181 · 3.23 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The antibody-mediated targeted delivery of cytokines, growth factors and immunomodulators offers great potential for the therapy of cancer and other serious conditions. Interferon-alpha has long been used in the clinic for the treatment of patients with certain malignancies or with viral disease. Promising anticancer activity has recently been reported for two fusion proteins consisting of immunoglobulins bearing the interferon-alpha polypeptide at the C-terminal end of the molecule. Here we describe the design, production and characterization of a novel immunocytokine, in which murine interferon-alpha2 was sequentially fused with the tumor-targeting antibody fragment scFv(F8), specific to the alternatively-spliced EDA domain of fibronectin. The resulting fusion protein (F8-IFNa) could be produced to homogeneity and was shown to retain both antigen binding activity and interferon-alpha activity. Biodistribution studies in tumor-bearing mice with radioiodinated protein preparations confirmed the ability of F8-IFNa to selectively localize at the tumor site. However, using two different murine models of cancer (F9 teratocarcinomas and Cloudman S91 melanomas in immunocompetent mice), we could not detect a striking superiority for the therapeutic performance of F8-IFNa as compared to KSF-IFNa, a fusion protein of irrelevant specificity in the mouse which was used as negative control. In the paper, we present hypotheses why the antibody-based pharmacodelivery of interferon-alpha fails to eradicate tumors, in contrast to the situation observed by our group for other immunocytokines, which benefit from a selective localization at the tumor site.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) is a multipotent cytokine that is sequestered in the extracellular matrix (ECM) through interactions with a number of ECM proteins. The ECM serves to concentrate latent TGFβ at sites of intended function, to influence the bioavailability and/or function of TGFβ activators, and perhaps to regulate the intrinsic performance of cell surface effectors of TGFβ signal propagation. The downstream consequences of TGFβ signaling cascades in turn provide feedback modulation of the ECM. This review covers recent examples of how genetic mutations in constituents of the ECM or TGFβ signaling cascade result in altered ECM homeostasis, cellular performance and ultimately disease, with an emphasis on emerging therapeutic strategies that seek to capitalize on this refined mechanistic understanding.
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