Reversible ductus arteriosus constriction due to maternal indomethacin after fetal intervention for hypoplastic left heart syndrome with intact/restrictive atrial septum.
ABSTRACT Fetal cardiac intervention (FCI) has been performed at our center in selected fetuses with complex congenital heart disease since 2000. Most interventions are performed in fetuses with a ductus arteriosus (DA)-dependent circulation. Indomethacin promotes closure of the DA in newborns and in fetal life, a potentially life threatening complication in fetuses with ductus-dependent congenital heart disease.
We reviewed our experience with FCI with a focus on the frequency, features, and clinical course of ductal constriction. Fetuses undergoing FCI receive comprehensive pre- and postoperative cardiac and cerebral ultrasound evaluation, approximately 24 hours before and after the procedure, including imaging of DA flow and Doppler assessment of the umbilical artery and vein, ductus venosus, and, since 2004, the middle cerebral artery.
Among 113 fetuses that underwent FCI, 24 of which were older than 28 0/7 weeks gestation, 2 were found to have DA constriction due to indomethacin therapy within 24 hours of intervention. Both of these were 30-week fetuses with hypoplastic left heart syndrome and restrictive or intact atrial septum. The DA was stenotic by spectral and color Doppler, and middle cerebral and umbilical artery pulsatility indexes were depressed. After discontinuation of indomethacin, the Doppler indices improved or normalized.
Close echocardiographic monitoring of fetal Doppler flow velocities is very important after fetal intervention and indomethacin treatment, as the consequences of DA constriction in a fetus with hypoplastic left heart syndrome are potentially lethal. Sonographic evaluation should include measurement of cerebral and umbilical arterial flow velocities as well as color and spectral Doppler interrogation of the DA.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the incidence of neonatal complications among infants exposed to indomethacin antenatally, postnatally or both ante-and postnatally (combined), the records of 240 infants of gestational ages between 23 to 32 weeks were analysed retrospectively. Antenatal indomethacin treatment for longer than 2 days with a daily or cumulative dosage >/=150 mg correlated with a significantly higher incidence of grade I-II intraventricular haemorrhage. Combined exposure, cumulative antenatal exposure >/=150 mg and duration of antenatal exposure of more than 2 days was associated with necrotising enterocolitis and a cumulative exposure with sepsis. There was no independent association between indomethacin exposure and pneumothorax, bronchopulmonary dysplasia or respiratory distress syndrome. CONCLUSION: Preterm infants with exposure to antenatal indomethacin might be at increased risk of grade I and II intraventricular haemorrhage and those with both ante- and postnatal exposure at an increased risk of necrotising enterocolitis and sepsis.European Journal of Pediatrics 03/2000; 159(3):153-5. · 1.91 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Postnatally, therapeutic indomethacin administration is usually effective in mediating patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) constriction in premature infants. There are infants, however, who remain resistant to indomethacin and require more aggressive surgical intervention to facilitate ductal closure. Indomethacin tocolysis has been reported to increase the incidence of persistent PDA in premature infants. It was our impression that infants exposed to antenatal indomethacin not only suffered from an increased incidence of PDA, but that they were more symptomatic from PDA and that for them, PDA was more resistant to medical closure. It is this observation that we sought to examine in this study. METHODS: Medical records of all mothers and premature neonates with birth weight </=1500 g, admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit of the Shaare Zedek Medical Center during 1996 and 1997, who survived for at least 1 week, were reviewed retrospectively. Data on maternal indomethacin and steroid exposure, birth weight and gestational age, and ductus status and treatment were analyzed. In our obstetrics department, indomethacin is the medication of choice to inhibit premature labor. Mothers who arrive in premature labor are started on indomethacin therapy, if delivery is not imminent. All infants </=1500 g were studied by a pediatric cardiologist between 24 and 72 hours of life using two-dimensional echocardiography with color flow mapping to assess ductal patency. Decisions to treat were based on echocardiographic evidence of PDA, along with any of the following clinical signs: bounding pulses, diastolic pressure of </=25 mm Hg, pulmonary plethora and/or cardiomegaly on chest x-ray, or increasing oxygen requirement with no other explanation. Initial treatment is with indomethacin, if there are no contraindications. Our general approach is to begin therapy with a continuous indomethacin infusion, followed by a course of bolus indomethacin if the infant does not respond. However, each attending neonatologist may treat according to his/her preference (ie, bolus vs continuous). All infants with PDA are followed with serial echocardiographic examinations until the ductus is closed. RESULTS: A total of 105 premature infants met the above criteria. Thirty-six of these 105 infants had echocardiographic signs of a PDA (34.3%). Those with PDA were less mature (gestational age, 28.9 +/- 2.6 vs 30.3 +/- 2.6 weeks, respectively) and tended to be smaller (1060 +/- 270 vs 1166 +/- 261 g). Of the 36 infants with PDA, 15 (42%) resolved spontaneously and 21 (58%) were symptomatic and required treatment with indomethacin. There were no differences in gestational age or birth weight between infants whose PDA resolved spontaneously and those requiring indomethacin therapy. Four of the 21 (19%) treated infants remained unresponsive to indomethacin and required ductal ligation. Of 17 infants with PDA who responded to indomethacin therapy, 1 (6%) was treated with a single course of bolus indomethacin, to which he responded, and 16 (94%) were treated with continuous indomethacin and responded promptly. The differences in therapeutic responsiveness to initial treatment with continuous vs bolus indomethacin were not significant. Of the 105 infants, 29 were exposed to indomethacin tocolysis. Those who were exposed to antenatal indomethacin and those who were not were well-matched with respect to birth weight and gestational age. Fifteen (52%) of the 29 exposed infants versus 18 (24%) of the 76 infants not exposed to antenatal indomethacin developed a PDA postnatally (relative risk = 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.22-3.74), and 45% of the antenatally exposed infants versus 12% of the nonexposed infants were symptomatic and required indomethacin (relative risk = 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.17-3.20). Four of the exposed infants versus none of the unexposed infants required surgical ligation. (ABSTRACT TRUNCATED)PEDIATRICS 12/1998; 102(5):E56. · 4.47 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Our purpose was to determine whether continuing exposure to indomethacin tocolysis is associated with an increased incidence of constriction of the human fetal ductus arteriosus with advancing gestational age. Fetal echocardiograms were reviewed in 61 cases in which the pregnant women were treated for preterm labor with indomethacin (25 mg orally every 6 hours). Density function analysis and regression analysis were used to assess the effect of indomethacin tocolysis on ductal constriction with advancing gestational age. A total of 193 fetal echocardiograms were obtained for 72 fetuses. Ductal constriction developed in 50% of the fetuses ranging from 24.7 to 35.0 weeks' gestation. Fetuses with indomethacin-induced ductal constriction demonstrated a greater increase in systolic flow velocities with advancing gestational age compared with the nonconstricted group (p < 0.05). Constriction was detected at a mean gestational age of 30.9 +/- 2.3 weeks at an average of 5.1 +/- 6.0 days after initiation of therapy. Ductal constriction occurred by 31 weeks' gestation in 70% of the affected fetuses. After discontinuation of indomethacin therapy, all follow-up echocardiograms demonstrated a return to nonconstricted ductal flow velocities. No significant adverse neonatal outcomes were attributed to indomethacin use. A dramatic yet reversible increase in the incidence of indomethacin-induced ductal constriction occurs at 31 weeks' gestation. However, ductal constriction can occur at any gestational age. With indomethacin tocolysis, weekly fetal echocardiography is warranted for the duration of therapy.American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 08/1997; 177(2):256-9; discussion 259-61. · 3.88 Impact Factor