Minireview: Nanoparticles and the Immune System

Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Office of Pharmaceutical Science, Food and Drug Administration, Silver Spring, Maryland 20993, USA.
Endocrinology (Impact Factor: 4.5). 12/2009; 151(2):458-65. DOI: 10.1210/en.2009-1082
Source: PubMed


Today nanotechnology is finding growing applications in industry, biology, and medicine. The clear benefits of using nanosized products in various biological and medical applications are often challenged by concerns about the lack of adequate data regarding their toxicity. One area of interest involves the interactions between nanoparticles and the components of the immune system. Nanoparticles can be engineered to either avoid immune system recognition or specifically inhibit or enhance the immune responses. We review herein reported observations on nanoparticle-mediated immunostimulation and immunosuppression, focusing on possible theories regarding how manipulation of particle physicochemical properties can influence their interaction with immune cells to attain desirable immunomodulation and avoid undesirable immunotoxicity.

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Available from: Africa González-Fernández,
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    • "The physico-chemical properties of NPs have proved to play an essential role in the modulation of DC immune responses during maturation, T lymphocyte proliferation and cytokine secretion. NP type [8] [18], size [29e32], shape [33], surface charge [34] and hydrophobicity [35] strongly affect the inflammatory responses of DCs and the level of cytotoxicity [29] [36]. For instance, several in vitro and in vivo studies with polymeric and metallic NPs suggest that a size lower than 200 nm enhances DC uptake, improves immunoresponse induction and the delivery of antigens [27] [30]. "
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    ABSTRACT: We have studied the effect of highly fluorescent gold nanoclusters (Au NCs) (∅< 3nm) stabilized by different ligands on the intracellular accumulation and immune response of human derived-monocyte dendritic cells (DCs). Results indicate that the high uptake efficiency of Au NCs is strongly related to their small size and to the nature of the ligand, with zwitterionic ligands being more effective than pegylated ones. Evidence from flow cytometry and microscopy demonstrate time and concentration-dependent Au NCs internalization by endocytic pathway(s) involving amorphous and laminar organelles, while maintaining their discrete size and photoluminescence properties. The uptake of zwitterionic ligand-stabilized Au NCs induced very low cytotoxicity and a strong immunosuppressive response (Th1/Treg pattern), associated with a DC maturation state. This behavior contrasts to the effect of bigger particles (∼12nm size) which induced a cytotoxic response involving Natural Killer (CD56) cells. Overall, this study stresses the critical importance of particle size and ligand type on the immunostimulation of DCs and highlights the remarkable potential of this new class of nanomaterial as a novel vaccine platform.
    Biomaterials 01/2014; accepted(1). DOI:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2014.11.045 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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    • "Additionally, nanocarriers are promising as the delivery systems for DNA vaccines [21]. Nanoemulsions or nanosized aerosol vaccines are also under development [22] [23]. Although many reports have shown that safe, biocompatible materials could be engineered into nanoparticles that contain drugs or vaccines, researchers are trying to develop new materials for vectors that interact specifically and predictably with cells. "
    P. Gill ·
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    ABSTRACT: This review briefly describes the concerns of nanobiotechnology in the design and development of novel vaccines using the most known nanocarriers, including nature-made nanocarriers (such as bacterial spores, virus-like particles, exosomes, and bacteriophages), man-made nanocarriers (such as Proteosomes, liposomes, virosomes, SuperFluids, and nanobeads), and their applications in therapeutic and protective immunization, as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Here, we focus on the development of nano-based vaccines as “nanovaccines” for inducing immune systems, and the foreseeable promises and problems when compared with existing vaccines. Also, we review a potential nano-hazard for vaccines, so-called nanobacterial contamination.
    Scientia Iranica 06/2013; 54(3). DOI:10.1016/j.scient.2013.05.012 · 1.03 Impact Factor
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    • "Within this frame, the increasing understanding of the influence of the nanocarrier characteristics (composition, size, charge) on their effectiveness is gradually paving the way to the rational design of nanovaccines [5]. For instance, both size and surface properties of polymeric nanocarriers are known to have a critical influence on the uptake and activation of APCs [6] and, ultimately, on the type of immune response generated (preferentially cellular vs. humoral) [7], [8]. "
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    ABSTRACT: The recognized necessity for new antigen delivery carriers with the capacity to boost, modulate and prolong neutralizing immune responses prompted our approach, in which we describe a multifunctional nanocarrier consisting of an oily nanocontainer protected by a polymeric shell made of chitosan (CS), named CS nanocapsules (CSNC). The CS shell can associate the antigen on its surface, whereas the oily core might provide additional immunostimulating properties. In this first characterization of the system, we intended to study the influence of different antigen organizations on the nanocarrier's surface (using the recombinant hepatitis B surface antigen -rHBsAg- as a model antigen) on their long-term immunopotentiating effect, without any additional immunostimulant. Thus, two prototypes of antigen-loaded CSNC (CSNC+ and CSNC-), exhibiting similar particle size (200 nm) and high antigen association efficiency (>80%), were developed with different surface composition (polymer/antigen ratios) and surface charge (positive/negative, respectively). The biological evaluation of these nanovaccines evidenced the superiority of the CSNC+ as compared to CSNC- and alum-rHBsAg in terms of neutralizing antibody responses, following intramuscular vaccination. Moreover, a single dose of CSNC+ led to similar IgG levels to the positive control. The IgG1/IgG2a ratio suggested a mixed Th1/Th2 response elicited by CSNC+, in contrast to the typical Th2-biased response of alum. Finally, CSNC+ could be freeze-dried without altering its physicochemical properties and adjuvant effect in vivo. In conclusion, the evaluation of CSNC+ confirms its interesting features for enhancing, prolonging and modulating the type of immune response against subunit antigens, such as rHBsAg.
    PLoS ONE 04/2013; 8(4):e62500. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0062500 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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