Long-term outcome of systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension treated with bosentan as first-line monotherapy followed or not by the addition of prostanoids or sildenafil.

Universite Paris-Sud, Faculte de Medecine, Kremlin-Bice tre, France.
Rheumatology (Oxford, England) (Impact Factor: 4.24). 12/2009; 49(3):490-500. DOI: 10.1093/rheumatology/kep398
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Data on long-term efficacy of bosentan, an oral dual ET receptor antagonist, in SSc-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH) are lacking. We aimed to describe the long-term outcome of SSc-PAH treated with first-line monotherapy bosentan followed or not by the addition of prostanoids or sildenafil.
A prospective analysis of 49 consecutive SSc-PAH patients treated with first-line bosentan was performed. New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and haemodynamics were assessed at baseline and after 4 and 12 months.
At 4 months, significant improvements in NYHA functional class and haemodynamics were observed with stabilization at 1 year. There was no significant improvement in 6MWD. Overall survival estimates were 80, 56 and 51% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively, and were significantly worse than those in a cohort of patients with idiopathic PAH (92, 89 and 79% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively; P < 0.0001). Twenty-three patients (47%) died after a mean follow-up of 23 (18) months. In multivariate analysis, baseline and 4-month NYHA functional class and 4-month cardiac index were independent factors associated with overall survival.
In our cohort of consecutive SSc-PAH patients treated with first-line bosentan, improvement in NYHA functional class and haemodynamics was significant after 4 months of treatment and stabilized afterwards. One-year overall survival rate was higher than previously reported in historical series. However, long-term prognosis remains poor. Our study underlines the importance of haemodynamic evaluation 4 months after the start of treatment to provide strong parameters associated with survival-like cardiac index.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background The double-blind phase of the EARLY study of bosentan remains the only randomized controlled trial of a PAH-targeted therapy in World Health Organization functional class (FC) II patients. We report on the efficacy, safety, disease worsening, survival and prognostic factors in mildly symptomatic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients treated with bosentan in the open-label extension phase of the EARLY study. Methods Exploratory efficacy outcomes included 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and WHO FC. Adverse events were recorded. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to estimate time to first PAH worsening event (death, initiation of intravenous or subcutaneous prostanoids, atrial septostomy or lung transplantation) and survival. Cox regression analysis determined factors prognostic of survival. Results Median exposure to bosentan (n = 173) was 51 months. At the end of the bosentan-treatment assessment period, 77.8% of patients were in WHO FC I/II. Adverse events led to discontinuation of bosentan in 20.2% of patients. Aminotransferase elevations > 3 x upper limit of normal occurred in 16.8%. Four-year PAH-event-free survival and survival were 79.5% (95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 73.4, 85.6) and 84.8% [95% CI 79.4, 90.2], respectively. Low 6MWD, low mixed venous oxygenation, high N-terminal pro hormone of brain natriuretic peptide levels and PAH associated with connective tissue disease were associated with a higher risk of death. Conclusions The majority of patients exposed to long-term bosentan maintained or improved their functional class. Approximately 20% of the patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events, which were most commonly PAH worsening and elevated liver enzymes.
    International journal of cardiology 01/2014; · 6.18 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Systemic sclerosis per se should not be considered as an a priori contraindication for a pre-transplantation assessment in patients with advanced interstitial lung disease and/or pulmonary hypertension. For lung or heart-lung transplantation, a multidisciplinary approach, adapting the pre-transplant assessment to systemic sclerosis and optimizing systemic sclerosis patient management before, during and after surgery should improved the short- and long-term prognosis. Indications and contraindications for transplantation have to be adapted to the specificities of systemic sclerosis. A special focus on the digestive tract involvement and its thorough evaluation are mandatory before transplantation in systemic sclerosis. As the esophagus is almost always involved, isolated gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, pH metry and/or manometry abnormalities should not be a systematic per se contraindication for pre-transplantation assessment. Corticosteroids may be harmful in systemic sclerosis as they are associated with acute renal crisis. A low dose corticosteroids protocol for immunosuppression is therefore advisable in systemic sclerosis.
    La Presse Médicale. 01/2014;
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rapidly progressive pulmonary vascular disease with a multifactorial etiopathogenesis that can result in right-sided heart failure and death. A number of studies indicate that an early therapeutic intervention yields better results on disease progression as compared to delayed treatment. In this review, we will analyze treatment strategies that may be used for monitoring disease progression and for guiding treatment decisions. Several factors (ie, symptoms, functional class, exercise capacity as assessed by a walking test and cardiopulmonary stress testing, hemodynamic parameters, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, and plasma levels of biochemical markers) have been prognostic of survival. These indicators may be used both at the time of diagnosis and during treatment follow-up. No resolutive therapy is currently available for PAH; however, in the last decade, the advent of specific pharmacological treatments has given new hope to patients suffering from this debilitating disease with a poor prognosis. Combination drug therapies offer increased benefits over monotherapy, and current guidelines recommend a sequential "add on" design approach for patients in functional class II-IV. The goal-oriented "treat to target" therapy sets the timing for treatment escalation in case of inadequate response to currently known prognostic indicators. To date, further longitudinal studies should be urgently conducted to identify new goals that may improve therapeutic strategies in order to optimize personalized treatment in PAH patients.
    Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management 01/2014; 10:825-39. · 1.34 Impact Factor