Long-term outcome of systemic sclerosis-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension treated with bosentan as first-line monotherapy followed or not by the addition of prostanoids or sildenafil
ABSTRACT Data on long-term efficacy of bosentan, an oral dual ET receptor antagonist, in SSc-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (SSc-PAH) are lacking. We aimed to describe the long-term outcome of SSc-PAH treated with first-line monotherapy bosentan followed or not by the addition of prostanoids or sildenafil.
A prospective analysis of 49 consecutive SSc-PAH patients treated with first-line bosentan was performed. New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class, 6-min walk distance (6MWD) and haemodynamics were assessed at baseline and after 4 and 12 months.
At 4 months, significant improvements in NYHA functional class and haemodynamics were observed with stabilization at 1 year. There was no significant improvement in 6MWD. Overall survival estimates were 80, 56 and 51% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively, and were significantly worse than those in a cohort of patients with idiopathic PAH (92, 89 and 79% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively; P < 0.0001). Twenty-three patients (47%) died after a mean follow-up of 23 (18) months. In multivariate analysis, baseline and 4-month NYHA functional class and 4-month cardiac index were independent factors associated with overall survival.
In our cohort of consecutive SSc-PAH patients treated with first-line bosentan, improvement in NYHA functional class and haemodynamics was significant after 4 months of treatment and stabilized afterwards. One-year overall survival rate was higher than previously reported in historical series. However, long-term prognosis remains poor. Our study underlines the importance of haemodynamic evaluation 4 months after the start of treatment to provide strong parameters associated with survival-like cardiac index.
- SourceAvailable from: Hikmet Al-Hiti
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- "Functional class at the time of diagnosis as well as during follow-up is of pivotal prognostic importance . Patients starting therapy in WHO FC I/II have a better prognosis than those in WHO FC III/IV  and patients who achieve WHO FC I/II after treatment have a better prognosis than those who remain in WHO FC III/IV  . Despite a relatively well preserved exercise capacity and mild symptoms, patients in WHO FC II are already hemodynamically compromised . "
ABSTRACT: Background The double-blind phase of the EARLY study of bosentan remains the only randomized controlled trial of a PAH-targeted therapy in World Health Organization functional class (FC) II patients. We report on the efficacy, safety, disease worsening, survival and prognostic factors in mildly symptomatic pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients treated with bosentan in the open-label extension phase of the EARLY study. Methods Exploratory efficacy outcomes included 6-minute walk distance (6MWD) and WHO FC. Adverse events were recorded. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to estimate time to first PAH worsening event (death, initiation of intravenous or subcutaneous prostanoids, atrial septostomy or lung transplantation) and survival. Cox regression analysis determined factors prognostic of survival. Results Median exposure to bosentan (n = 173) was 51 months. At the end of the bosentan-treatment assessment period, 77.8% of patients were in WHO FC I/II. Adverse events led to discontinuation of bosentan in 20.2% of patients. Aminotransferase elevations > 3 x upper limit of normal occurred in 16.8%. Four-year PAH-event-free survival and survival were 79.5% (95% confidence intervals [95% CI] 73.4, 85.6) and 84.8% [95% CI 79.4, 90.2], respectively. Low 6MWD, low mixed venous oxygenation, high N-terminal pro hormone of brain natriuretic peptide levels and PAH associated with connective tissue disease were associated with a higher risk of death. Conclusions The majority of patients exposed to long-term bosentan maintained or improved their functional class. Approximately 20% of the patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events, which were most commonly PAH worsening and elevated liver enzymes.International journal of cardiology 03/2014; 172(2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijcard.2013.12.179 · 6.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With the aid of the threshold decomposition, rank order filters are shown to be the optimal filters under a general error criterion which includes an absolute error criterion. The particular rank order filter that is optimal is specified by a linear program. The technique developed in this paper extends to an entire class of nonlinear filters known as stack filters .Acoustics, Speech, and Signal Processing, IEEE International Conference on ICASSP '86.; 05/1986
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