Soluble Flt-1 gene therapy ameliorates albuminuria but accelerates tubulointerstitial injury in diabetic mice.
ABSTRACT VEGF is recognized as a major mediator in the development of diabetic nephropathy. Soluble Flt-1 (sFlt-1) is the endogenous inhibitor of VEGF, and recently genetic overexpression of sFlt-1 in the podocyte was shown to be protective in murine diabetic nephropathy. In this study, we performed a translational study to determine whether an intramuscular gene transfer of sFlt-1 can prevent the progression of renal disease in diabetic db/db mice. Adeno-associated virus-1 (AAV1) encoding human sFlt-1 in two different doses was intramuscularly administrated in db/db and wild-type mice. The sFlt-1-AAV1 treatment significantly increased serum sFlt-1 level at 4 and 8 wk. A dose that was developed in this study caused minimal abnormalities in normal mice but reduced albuminuria in diabetic db/db mice. In renal histology, sFlt-1 treatment at this dose had minimal effects on mesangial expansion in diabetic mice, whereas podocyte injury was significantly improved, at 8 wk. Unfortunately, tubulointerstitial injury was markedly exacerbated by sFlt-1 treatment in association with a reduction in endogenous VEGF expression and peritubular capillary loss. In conclusion, gene therapy with sFlt-1-AAV1 protects podocytes but accelerates tubulointerstitial injury in diabetic db/db mice. These data suggest systemic overexpression of sFlt-1 will not likely be useful for treating diabetic nephropathy.
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ABSTRACT: Diabetes is one of the most serious health problems in the world. A major complication of diabetes is blood vessel disease, termed angiopathy, which is characterized by abnormal angiogenesis. In this review, we focus on angiogenesis abnormalities in diabetic complications and discuss its benefits and drawbacks as a therapeutic target for diabetic vascular complications. Additionally, we discuss glucose metabolism defects that are associated with abnormal angiogenesis in atypical diabetic complications such as cancer.Fibrogenesis & Tissue Repair 08/2012; 5(1):13.
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ABSTRACT: The pathogenic role of excessive vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A in diabetic nephropathy has not been defined. We sought to test whether increased podocyte VEGF-A signalling determines the severity of diabetic glomerulopathy. Podocyte-specific, doxycycline-inducible Vegf₁₆₄ (the most abundant Vegfa isoform) overexpressing adult transgenic mice were made diabetic with low doses of streptozotocin and examined 12 weeks after onset of diabetes. We studied diabetic and non-diabetic transgenic mice fed a standard or doxycycline-containing diet. VEGF-A and albuminuria were measured by ELISA, creatinine was measured by HPLC, renal morphology was examined by light and electron microscopy, and gene expression was assessed by quantitative PCR, immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry. Podocyte Vegf₁₆₄ overexpression in our mouse model of diabetes resulted in advanced diabetic glomerulopathy, characterised by Kimmelstiel-Wilson-like nodular glomerulosclerosis, microaneurysms, mesangiolysis, glomerular basement membrane thickening, podocyte effacement and massive proteinuria associated with hyperfiltration. It also led to increased VEGF receptor 2 and semaphorin3a levels, as well as nephrin and matrix metalloproteinase-2 downregulation, whereas circulating VEGF-A levels were similar to those in control diabetic mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that increased podocyte Vegf₁₆₄ signalling dramatically worsens diabetic nephropathy in a streptozotocin-induced mouse model of diabetes, resulting in nodular glomerulosclerosis and massive proteinuria. This suggests that local rather than systemic VEGF-A levels determine the severity of diabetic nephropathy and that semaphorin3a signalling and matrix metalloproteinase-2 dysregulation are mechanistically involved in severe diabetic glomerulopathy.Diabetologia 02/2011; 54(5):1227-41. · 6.49 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Rarefaction of the renal microvasculature correlates with declining kidney function. However, current technologies commonly used for its evaluation are limited by their reliance on endothelial cell antigen expression and assessment in two dimensions. We set out to establish a widely applicable and unbiased optical sectioning method to enable three dimensional imaging and reconstruction of the renal microvessels based on their luminal filling. The kidneys of subtotally nephrectomized (SNx) rats and their sham-operated counterparts were subjected to either routine two-dimensional immunohistochemistry or the novel technique of fluorescent microangiography (FMA). The latter was achieved by perfusion of the kidney with an agarose suspension of fluorescent polystyrene microspheres followed by optical sectioning of 200 µm thick cross-sections using a confocal microscope. The fluorescent microangiography method enabled the three-dimensional reconstruction of virtual microvascular casts and confirmed a reduction in both glomerular and peritubular capillary density in the kidneys of SNx rats, despite an overall increase in glomerular volume. FMA is an uncomplicated technique for evaluating the renal microvasculature that circumvents many of the limitations imposed by conventional analysis of two-dimensional tissue sections.PLoS ONE 01/2011; 6(10):e24695. · 3.73 Impact Factor