Thermal nociception is decreased by hypocretin-1 and an adenosine A1 receptor agonist microinjected into the pontine reticular formation of Sprague Dawley rat.
ABSTRACT Clinical and preclinical data concur that sleep disruption causes hyperalgesia, but the brain mechanisms through which sleep and pain interact remain poorly understood. Evidence that pontine components of the ascending reticular activating system modulate sleep and nociception encouraged the present study testing the hypothesis that hypocretin-1 (orexin-A) and an adenosine receptor agonist administered into the pontine reticular nucleus, oral part (PnO) each alter thermal nociception. Adult male rats (n = 23) were implanted with microinjection guide tubes aimed for the PnO. The PnO was microinjected with saline (control), hypocretin-1, the adenosine A(1) receptor agonist N(6)-p-sulfophenyladenosine (SPA), the hypocretin receptor-1 antagonist N-(2-Methyl-6-benzoxazolyl)-N''-1,5-naphthyridin-4-yl-urea (SB-334867), and hypocretin-1 plus SB-334867. As an index of antinociceptive behavior, the latency (in seconds) to paw withdrawal away from a thermal stimulus was measured following each microinjection. Compared to control, antinociception was significantly increased by hypocretin-1 and by SPA. SB-334867 increased nociceptive responsiveness, and administration of hypocretin-1 plus SB-334867 blocked the antinociception caused by hypocretin-1. These results suggest for the first time that hypocretin receptors in rat PnO modulate nociception. PERSPECTIVE: Widely distributed and overlapping neural networks regulate states of sleep and pain. Specifying the brain regions and neurotransmitters through which pain and sleep interact is an essential step for developing adjunctive therapies that diminish pain without disrupting states of sleep and wakefulness.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Christopher J Watson, Apr 02, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Orexin-A has been shown to modulate pain sensation and increase appetite. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by joint destruction, deformity, hyperalgesia, and weight reduction. Aim: Evaluate the possible effect of orexin-A on hyperalgesic and cachectic manifestations in an adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) rat model. Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats were distributed among 4 groups; I, normal controls; II, rats with AIA induced by intradermal injection of Mycobacterium butyricum, but with no other treatment; III, AIA rats treated daily with an intravenous injection of orexin-A for 8 days; and IV, AIA rats treated orally with dexamethasone for 8 days. The parameters we assessed were pain-associated behavior, body mass, hind paw volume, serum levels of nerve growth factor (NGF) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Results: Orexin-A caused a significant reduction in pain sensation and NGF levels, and increased body mass and the levels of NPY, whereas treatment with dexamethasone led to significant reductions in paw swelling and pain sensation. Conclusion: Orexin-A has hypoalgesic properties and increases body mass, whereas dexamethasone has a potent anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, the combination of orexin-A and dexamethasone should have a greater effect with respect to attenuating the manifestations and complications associated with RA.Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 08/2014; 92(10):1-8. DOI:10.1139/cjpp-2014-0258 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human obesity is associated with increased leptin levels and pain, but the specific brain regions and neurochemical mechanisms underlying this association remain poorly understood. This study used adult male C57BL/6J (B6, n = 14) mice and leptin-deficient, obese B6.Cg-Lep(ob)/J (obese, n = 10) mice to evaluate the hypothesis that nociception is altered by systemic leptin levels and by adenosine A1 receptors in the pontine reticular formation. Nociception was quantified as paw withdrawal latency (PWL) in s after onset of a thermal stimulus. PWL wasconverted topercent maximum possible effect (%MPE). After obtaining baseline PWL measures, the pontine reticular formation was microinjected with saline (control), three concentrations of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist N(6)-p-sulfophenyladenosine (SPA), or super-active mouse leptin receptor antagonist (SMLA) followed by SPA 15 min later, and PWL was again quantified. In obese, leptin-deficient mice, nociception was quantified before and during leptin replacement via subcutaneous osmotic pumps. SPA was administered into the pontine reticular formation of leptin-replaced mice and PWL testing was repeated. During baseline (before vehicle or SPA administration), PWL was significantly (p = 0.0013) lower in leptin-replaced obese mice than in B6 mice. Microinjecting SPA into the pontine reticular formation of B6 mice caused a significant (p = 0.0003) concentration-dependent increase in%MPE. SPA also significantly (p < 0.05) increased%MPE in B6 mice and in leptin-replaced obese mice, but not in leptin-deficient obese mice. Microinjection of the mouse super-active leptin antagonist (SMLA) into the pontine reticular formation before SPA did not alter PWL. The results show for the first time that pontine reticular formation administration of the adenosine A1 receptor agonist SPA produced antinociception only in the presence of systemic leptin. The concentration-response data support the interpretation that adenosine A1 receptors localized to the pontine reticular formation significantly alter nociception.Neuroscience 06/2014; 275. DOI:10.1016/j.neuroscience.2014.06.025 · 3.33 Impact Factor