Urban-rural differences of gynaecological malignancies in Egypt (1999-2002)
ABSTRACT In previous studies, we have shown a three to four times higher urban incidence of breast cancer and estrogen receptor-positive breast cancers in the Gharbiah Province of Egypt. We investigated the urban-rural incidence differences of gynaecologic malignancies (uterine, ovarian and cervical cancers) to explore if they show the same trend that we found for breast cancer.
Cancer registry-based incidence comparison.
Gharbiah population-based cancer registry (GPCR), Tanta, Egypt.
All patients with uterine, ovarian and cervical cancer in GPCR from 1999 to 2002.
We calculated uterine, ovarian and cervical cancer incidence from 1999 to 2002. For each of the three cancers, we calculated the overall and age-specific rates for the province as a whole, and by urban-rural status, as well as for the eight districts of the province.
Incidence of all three cancer sites was higher in urban than in rural areas. Uterine cancer showed the highest urban-rural incidence rate ratio (IRR = 6.07, 95% CI = 4.17, 8.85). Uterine cancer also showed the highest urban incidence in the oldest age group (70+ age category, IRR = 14.39, 95% CI = 4.24, 48.87) and in developed districts (Tanta, IRR = 4.14, 95% CI = 0.41, 42.04). Incidence rates by groups of cancer sites showed an increasing gradient of urban incidence for cancers related to hormonal aetiology, mainly of the breast and uterus (IRR = 4.96, 95% CI = 2.86, 8.61).
The higher urban incidence of uterine cancer, coupled with our previous findings of higher incidence of breast cancer and estrogen receptor positive breast cancer in urban areas in this region, may be suggestive of possible higher exposure to environmental estrogenic compounds, such as xenoestrogens, in urban areas.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Subhojit Dey, Jun 02, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Almost 500,000 women are newly diagnosed with cervical cancer (CC) every year, the majority from developing countries. There is little information on the survival of these patients. Our primary objective was to evaluate consecutive CC patients presenting over 4 years at the only radiotherapy center in Ethiopia.METHODS: All patients with CC from September 2008 to September 2012 who received radiotherapy and/or surgery were included (without brachytherapy). Vital status was obtained through telephone contact or patient cards.RESULTS: Of 2,300 CC patients, 1,059 patients with standardized treatment were included. At the end of the study, 249 patients had died; surviving patients had a median follow-up of 16.5 months; the 10% and 90% percentiles were 3.0 and 32.7 months, respectively. Mean age was 49 years (21-91 years). The majority of patients presented with International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics stage IIb-IIIa (46.7%). Because of progression during the waiting time (median 3.8 months), this proportion declined to 19.3% at the beginning of radiotherapy. The 1- and 2-year overall survival probabilities were 90.4% and 73.6%. If assuming a worst-case scenario (i.e., if all patients not available for follow-up after 6 months had died), the 2-year survival probability would be 45.4%.CONCLUSION: This study gives a thorough 4-year overview of treated patients with CC in Ethiopia. Given the limited treatment availability, a relatively high proportion of patients survived 2 years. More prevention and early detection at all levels of the health care system are needed. Increasing the capacity for external-beam radiation as well as options for brachytherapy would facilitate treatment with curative intention.The Oncologist 06/2014; 19(7). DOI:10.1634/theoncologist.2013-0326 · 4.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Background. This paper aims to present cancer incidence rates at national and regional level of Egypt, based upon results of National Cancer Registry Program (NCRP). Methods. NCRP stratified Egypt into 3 geographical strata: lower, middle, and upper. One governorate represented each region. Abstractors collected data from medical records of cancer centers, national tertiary care institutions, Health Insurance Organization, Government-Subsidized Treatment Program, and death records. Data entry was online. Incidence rates were calculated at a regional and a national level. Future projection up to 2050 was also calculated. Results. Age-standardized incidence rates per 100,000 were 166.6 (both sexes), 175.9 (males), and 157.0 (females). Commonest sites were liver (23.8%), breast (15.4%), and bladder (6.9%) (both sexes): liver (33.6%) and bladder (10.7%) among men, and breast (32.0%) and liver (13.5%) among women. By 2050, a 3-fold increase in incident cancer relative to 2013 was estimated. Conclusion. These data are the only available cancer rates at national and regional levels of Egypt. The pattern of cancer indicated the increased burden of liver cancer. Breast cancer occupied the second rank. Study of rates of individual sites of cancer might help in giving clues for preventive programs.Journal of Cancer Epidemiology 01/2014; 2014:437971. DOI:10.1155/2014/437971
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ABSTRACT: To study the pattern of cancer incidence and determine the incidence rates in Eastern Libya (for the first time in a decade).