Antibodies can be purified by a variety of methods based on their unique physical and chemical properties such as size, solubility, charge, hydrophobicity and binding affinity. This chapter focuses on ammonium sulfate precipitation as a convenient first step in antibody purification in that, it allows the concentration of the starting material and the precipitation of the desired protein. The principle of ammonium sulfate precipitation lies in "salting out" proteins from the solution. The proteins are prevented to form hydrogen bonds with water and the salt facilitates their interaction with each other forming aggregates that afterward precipitate out of solution. Gel filtration or size- exclusion chromatography is also discussed in this chapter. Gel filtration is based on the relative size of protein molecules and it is of great value to separate IgMs, exchange buffers and/or desalt solutions. The columns designed to separate the proteins are composed of porous beads and the proteins will flow through the packed column inside and around the beads, depending on its size.
"The ED was supplemented with purified porcine plasma immunoglobulins, 33.5 mg/ml (ED + Ig) in one experimental group. Plasma Ig was purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation (Grodzki and Berenstein, 2010). A pool of citrated blood (500 ml), obtained from about 10 slaughtered pigs at a local slaughterhouse (Scan AB, Kristianstad, Sweden) was centrifuged at 3000 × g for 15 minutes, using a refrigerated centrifuge. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The first milk, colostrum, is an important source of nutrients and an exclusive source of immunoglobulins (Ig), essential for the growth and protection from infection of newborn pigs. Colostrum intake has also been shown to affect the vitality and behaviour of neonatal pigs. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of feeding colostrum and plasma immunoglobulin on brain development in neonatal pigs. Positive correlations were found between growth, levels of total protein and IgG in blood plasma and hippocampus development in sow-reared piglets during the first 3 postnatal days. In piglets fed an elemental diet (ED) for 24h, a reduced body weight, a lower plasma protein level and a decreased level of astrocyte specific protein in the hippocampus was observed, as compared to those that were sow-reared. The latter was coincident with a reduced microgliogenesis and an essentially diminished number of neurons in the CA1 area of the hippocampus after 72h. Supplementation of the ED with purified plasma Ig, improved the gliogenesis and supported the trophic and immune status of the hippocampus. The data obtained indicate that the development of the hippocampus structure is improved by colostrum or an Ig-supplemented elemental diet in order to stimulate brain protein synthesis and its development during the early postnatal period.
International journal of developmental neuroscience: the official journal of the International Society for Developmental Neuroscience 03/2014; 35. DOI:10.1016/j.ijdevneu.2014.03.003 · 2.58 Impact Factor
"Consequently, a large number of methodologies , including precipitation, electrophoretic separations, filtration , liquid and affinity chromatography were applied for antibody purification. However, affinity chromatography-based purification protocols continue to be the most efficient and widely employed  . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The global antibody market has grown exponentially due to increasing applications in research, diagnostics and therapy. Antibodies are present in complex matrices (e.g. serum, milk, egg yolk, fermentation broth or plant-derived extracts). This has led to the need for development of novel platforms for purification of large quantities of antibody with defined clinical and performance requirements. However, the choice of method is strictly limited by the manufacturing cost and the quality of the end product required. Affinity chromatography is one of the most extensively used methods for antibody purification, due to its high selectivity and rapidity. Its effectiveness is largely based on the binding characteristics of the required antibody and the ligand used for antibody capture. The approaches used for antibody purification are critically examined with the aim of providing the reader with the principles and practical insights required to understand the intricacies of the procedures. Affinity support matrices and ligands for affinity chromatography are discussed, including their relevant underlying principles of use, their potential value and their performance in purifying different types of antibodies, along with a list of commercially available alternatives. Furthermore, the principal factors influencing purification procedures at various stages are highlighted. Practical considerations for development and/or optimizations of efficient antibody-purification protocols are suggested.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: FoxP3(+) confers suppressive properties and is confined to regulatory T cells (T(reg)) that potently inhibit autoreactive immune responses. In the transplant setting, natural CD4(+) T(reg) are critical in controlling alloreactivity and the establishment of tolerance. We now identify an important CD8(+) population of FoxP3(+) T(reg) that convert from CD8(+) conventional donor T cells after allogeneic but not syngeneic bone marrow transplantation. These CD8(+) T(reg) undergo conversion in the mesenteric lymph nodes under the influence of recipient dendritic cells and TGF-β. Importantly, this population is as important for protection from GVHD as the well-studied natural CD4(+)FoxP3(+) population and is more potent in exerting class I-restricted and antigen-specific suppression in vitro and in vivo. Critically, CD8(+)FoxP3(+) T(reg) are exquisitely sensitive to inhibition by cyclosporine but can be massively and specifically expanded in vivo to prevent GVHD by coadministering rapamycin and IL-2 antibody complexes. CD8(+)FoxP3(+) T(reg) thus represent a new regulatory population with considerable potential to preferentially subvert MHC class I-restricted T-cell responses after bone marrow transplantation.
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