Criteria for Assessing Esophageal Motility in Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band Patients: The Importance of the Lower Esophageal Contractile Segment
ABSTRACT Esophageal function appears critical in laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) patients; however, conventional motility assessments have not proven to be clinically useful. Recent combined video fluoroscopic and high-resolution manometric studies have identified important components of esophageal function in LAGB patients.
Successful and symptomatic LAGB patients, with normal or mildly impaired esophageal peristalsis, underwent a standardized, water swallow, high-resolution manometry protocol designed specifically to assess the lower esophageal contractile segment (LECS), in combination with conventional measures of esophageal motility. Differences in response to changes in LAGB volume were assessed.
There were 101 symptomatic and 29 successful patients. More symptomatic patients had a mild impairment in esophageal motility (39.6% vs. 3.4%, p < 0.005). Successful patients demonstrated an intact LECS during normal swallows more frequently than symptomatic patients (95% vs. 43%, p < 0.005). Absolute intraluminal pressures were not different between the groups. Removing all fluid from the LAGB revealed more hypotensive swallows in the symptomatic patients (30% vs. 17%, p = 0.002), an effect not observed when the LAGB volume was increased (8% vs. 5%, p = 0.21). Receiver operator characteristic analysis determined that an intact LECS in 70% of normal swallows defined normal motility in LAGB patients.
The LECS is a valuable measure of esophageal function in LAGB patients and complements conventional manometric criteria. Symptomatic patients have less normal swallows; however, these also frequently demonstrate a deficient LECS. Further information can be elucidated by performing swallows at differing LAGB volumes. High-resolution manometry, using these adapted criteria, is now a useful in the investigation in symptomatic LAGB patients.
SourceAvailable from: S. LipkaGastroenterology and Hepatology 07/2013; 9(7):469-71.
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ABSTRACT: Sleeve gastrectomy is an increasingly performed bariatric procedure associated with low morbidity and good short to medium term effects on weight loss and comorbid conditions. Studies assessing the prevalence of post-operative gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD), show sleeve gastrectomy may provoke de novo GERD symptoms or worsening of pre-existing GERD. Pathophysiological mechanisms of GERD after sleeve gastrectomy include a hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter, increased gastro-esophageal pressure gradient and intra-thoracic migration of the remnant stomach. A reduction in the compliance of the gastric remnant may provoke an increase in transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations. Time-resolved MRI suggests relative gastric stasis in the proximal remnant and increased emptying from the antrum. A lack of standardisation of technique, along with heterogeneity of studies assessing GERD may explain the wide variability in reported results. Simultaneous and careful repair of an associated hiatus hernia may result in a reduction in the prevalence of post-operative GERD.Expert review of gastroenterology & hepatology 03/2014; DOI:10.1586/17474124.2014.888951
Gastroenterology and Hepatology 07/2013; 9(7):471-3.