Criteria for Assessing Esophageal Motility in Laparoscopic Adjustable Gastric Band Patients: The Importance of the Lower Esophageal Contractile Segment
ABSTRACT Esophageal function appears critical in laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) patients; however, conventional motility assessments have not proven to be clinically useful. Recent combined video fluoroscopic and high-resolution manometric studies have identified important components of esophageal function in LAGB patients.
Successful and symptomatic LAGB patients, with normal or mildly impaired esophageal peristalsis, underwent a standardized, water swallow, high-resolution manometry protocol designed specifically to assess the lower esophageal contractile segment (LECS), in combination with conventional measures of esophageal motility. Differences in response to changes in LAGB volume were assessed.
There were 101 symptomatic and 29 successful patients. More symptomatic patients had a mild impairment in esophageal motility (39.6% vs. 3.4%, p < 0.005). Successful patients demonstrated an intact LECS during normal swallows more frequently than symptomatic patients (95% vs. 43%, p < 0.005). Absolute intraluminal pressures were not different between the groups. Removing all fluid from the LAGB revealed more hypotensive swallows in the symptomatic patients (30% vs. 17%, p = 0.002), an effect not observed when the LAGB volume was increased (8% vs. 5%, p = 0.21). Receiver operator characteristic analysis determined that an intact LECS in 70% of normal swallows defined normal motility in LAGB patients.
The LECS is a valuable measure of esophageal function in LAGB patients and complements conventional manometric criteria. Symptomatic patients have less normal swallows; however, these also frequently demonstrate a deficient LECS. Further information can be elucidated by performing swallows at differing LAGB volumes. High-resolution manometry, using these adapted criteria, is now a useful in the investigation in symptomatic LAGB patients.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dysphagia and vomiting are frequent after laparoscopic gastric banding (LAGB). These symptoms could be secondary to esophageal motility disorders. Our aim was to assess esophageal motility and clearance in symptomatic LAGB patients using high resolution manometry (HRM). Twenty-two LAGB patients with esophageal symptoms (dysphagia, vomiting, and regurgitations) were included. Esophageal motility was studied using HRM (ManoScan®, Sierra Systems) and classified according to the Chicago classification. The median delay between surgery and manometry evaluation was 6.3 years (range 1-10). Manometric data were considered as normal in only 2 patients. Achalasia was diagnosed in 3 cases, functional EGJ obstruction in 15, hypotensive peristalsis in 2. During swallowing pan-esophageal pressurization was observed in 6 patients, hiatal hernia pressurization in 7 and gastric pouch pressurization in 2. The intra-bolus pressure was elevated in 18 patients. LAGB was deflated in 6 patients and removed in 12. In 2 patients with unchanged symptoms after LAGB removal motility disorders persisted (1 achalasia, 1 functional EGJ obstruction). In symptomatic LAGB patients, esophageal dysmotility is frequent. High resolution manometry allows the assessment of esophageal clearance and provides guidance for the choice of treatment.Digestive and Liver Disease 10/2010; 43(2):116-20. DOI:10.1016/j.dld.2010.08.011 · 2.89 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Patients with laparoscopic adjustable gastric bands (LAGB) present at times with adverse symptoms or unsatisfactory weight loss, where a liquid contrast swallow or upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is not diagnostic. Stress barium and high resolution manometry are promising investigations, however, have not yet been established as clinically useful. Patients with an unsatisfactory outcome following LAGB, where liquid contrast swallow and endoscopy were not diagnostic, were evaluated using high resolution video manometry and a stress barium. Pre-operative and follow-up clinical data were collected. Esophageal motility was assessed using the Melbourne criteria. There were 143 participants in the study. Stress barium identified the following appearances: gastric enlargement (n = 57), transhiatal enlargement (n = 44), pan-esophageal dilatation (n = 9), and anatomically normal (n = 33). Twenty-four (72%) of the anatomically normal patients had deficient esophageal motility. Revisional LAGB surgery was performed in 56 patients. This was successful in gastric enlargements when motility was intact (percentage of excess weight loss (%EWL) 58.3 ± 16.2 vs. 35.4 ± 19.7, p = 0.002). Revisional surgery for transhiatal enlargements improved symptoms but did not improve poor weight loss (%EWL 20.6 ± 24.9 vs. 17.2 ± 25, p = 0.1). The CORE classification combines anatomical change with esophageal motility and has been defined for intermediate term complications following LAGB where conventional investigations have not been diagnostic. Revisional LAGB surgery is helpful for patients with a gastric enlargement above the LAGB if esophageal motility is intact. If motility is deficient or there is an esophageal anatomical abnormality, intervention is not likely to remedy poor weight loss.Obesity Surgery 11/2010; 20(11):1516-23. DOI:10.1007/s11695-010-0258-0 · 3.74 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Obesity is a major medical problem worldwide. Different treatment modalities have emerged to treat obese patients, but the best long-term results are achieved with bariatric surgery. Currently, the interventions most commonly performed are laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), Roux-en-Y- gastric bypass (RYGB) and sleeve gastrectomy. To review the gastrointestinal motor complications associated with each of these types of bariatric interventions and the clinical implications of such complications. Search of medical database (PubMed) on English-language articles from January 1996 to March 2011. The search terms used were laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), roux-en-Y-gastric bypass (RYGB), using the AND operator with the terms: complications, motility, GERD, reflux, gastric emptying, esophagitis, dysphagia. Of the three bariatric interventions reviewed, LAGB was the most studied. Most studies reported short follow-up, of ≤ 1 year. Oesophageal motor dysfunction is the most common motility complication following the bariatric interventions that were reviewed and is mainly observed after LAGB. Some data suggest that oesophageal motor function testing predicts development of post-operative symptoms and oesophageal dilation. RYGB offers protection from gastro-oesophageal reflux. Sleeve gastrectomy was the least studied and was associated with an acceleration of gastric emptying. The effects of these interventions on GI motility should be considered when selecting patients for bariatric surgery. There is scant information regarding the overall effect of sleeve gastrectomy on gastro-oesophageal reflux patterns and oesophageal motility.Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics 08/2011; 34(8):825-31. DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2011.04812.x · 4.55 Impact Factor