Secondhand smoke is one of the most common toxic environmental exposures to children, and maternal health problems also have substantial negative effects on children. We are unaware of any studies examining the association of living with smokers and maternal health. To investigate whether non-smoking mothers who live with smokers have worse physical and mental health than non-smoking mothers who live in homes without smokers. Nationally representative data from the 2000-2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey were used. The health of non-smoking mothers with children <18 years (n = 18,810) was assessed, comparing those living with one or more smokers (n = 3,344) to those living in households with no adult smokers (n = 14,836). Associations between maternal health, household smoking, and maternal age, race/ethnicity, and marital, educational, poverty and employment status were examined in bivariable and multivariable analyses using SUDAAN software to adjust for the complex sampling design. Scores on the Medical Outcomes Short Form-12 (SF-12) Physical Component Scale (PCS) and Mental Component Scale (MCS) were used to assess maternal health. About 79.2% of mothers in the USA are non-smokers and 17.4% of them live with ≥1 adult smokers: 14.2% with 1 and 3.2% with ≥2 smokers. Among non-smoking mothers, the mean MCS score is 50.5 and mean PCS is 52.9. The presence of an adult smoker and increasing number of smokers in the home are both negatively associated with MCS and PCS scores in bivariable analyses (P < 0.001 for each). Non-smoking mothers with at least one smoker in the household had an 11% (95% CI = 0.80-0.99) lower odds of scoring at or above the mean MCS score and a 19% (95% CI = 0.73-0.90) lower odds of scoring at or above the mean PCS score compared to non-smoking mothers with no smokers in the household. There is an evidence of a dose response relationship with increasing number of smokers in the household for PCS (P < 0.001). These findings demonstrate a previously unrecognized child health risk: living with smokers is independently associated with worse physical and mental health among non-smoking mothers.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Phosphate is ubiquitous in the environment. However, its impact on sorption of hydrophobic organic compounds in soils has received little attention. Some effects of phosphate on phenanthrene sorption were investigated in this study using two Chinese soils with contrasting properties. The presence of phosphate significantly decreased the capacity and increased the nonlinearity of phenanthrene sorption in the soils, and this sorption-inhibiting effect was more significant at high phosphate concentration. The influence of phosphate on phenanthrene sorption in the soils was governed by the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), particularly higher-molecular-weight and highly aromatic DOC, which tended to be enhanced in the presence of phosphate (p<0.01) as evidenced by size exclusion chromatography and specific UV absorbance analysis. Atomic force microscopy and ζ potential analysis reveal that the ringed microaggregates of DOC were disrupted into larger condensed microaggregates and the solid interfaces tended to be more hydrophilic in the presence of phosphate which also inhibited the accumulation of phenanthrene in the soils. This study for the first time points to an important role of phosphate in the sorption of phenanthrene in soils and provides substantial evidence for the mechanisms involved using a combination of microscopic and chromatographic techniques.
Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 09/2010; 353(1):275-80. DOI:10.1016/j.jcis.2010.09.037 · 3.37 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: There is a consistent positive and significant association between secondhand smoke exposure and mental health outcomes in the literature. There are potential genetic and behavioral confounders (e.g., psychological stress, maternal depression, and family functioning) were discussed, as well as potential causal neurobiological pathways (e.g., dopamine system). Further neurobiological research to establish causal pathways is needed as well as the integration of positive observational findings into clinical and public health prevention practices.
Medical Hypotheses 09/2011; 77(6):1009-10. DOI:10.1016/j.mehy.2011.08.036 · 1.07 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Numerous studies have investigated the deleterious effects of maternal depression on child outcomes. Knowledge of characteristics of these mothers is incomplete, as most studies utilize small samples or limit investigation to the postpartum period. Utilizing data from a nationally representative sample of 7,211 fathers and mothers living in households with children aged 5-17 years who participated in the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) 2004-2006, the Patient Health Questionnaire-2 (PHQ-2) was used to assess parental depressive symptoms, the Short Form-12 (SF-12) was used to examine paternal and maternal physical health, and the Columbia Impairment Scale was used to measure child behavioral or emotional problems. In multivariate analyses, maternal unemployment (AOR 1.76, 95 % CI 1.31-2.35); living with smokers (AOR 1.82, 95 % CI 1.12-2.94); poor maternal physical health (AOR 2.31; 95 % CI 1.81-2.94); living with children with behavioral or emotional problems (AOR 2.95, 95 % CI 2.30-3.96); and paternal depressive symptoms (AOR 5.11, 95 % CI 1.97-13.25) each were independently associated with increased rates of maternal depressive symptoms. This paper is the first we are aware of to use a nationally representative sample to investigate characteristics associated with maternal depressive symptoms and found that maternal unemployment, living with smokers, poor maternal physical health, having children with behavioral or emotional problems, and paternal depressive symptoms are each independently associated with maternal depressive symptoms. In these data, paternal depressive symptoms are associated with the greatest risk of mothers exhibiting depressive symptoms, a finding that we believe has never before been shown.
Maternal and Child Health Journal 08/2012; 17(6). DOI:10.1007/s10995-012-1084-x · 2.24 Impact Factor
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