Auditory hallucinations in dissociative identity disorder and schizophrenia with and without a childhood trauma history: similarities and differences.
ABSTRACT Little is known about similarities and differences in voice hearing in schizophrenia and dissociative identity disorder (DID) and the role of child maltreatment and dissociation. This study examined various aspects of voice hearing, along with childhood maltreatment and pathological dissociation in 3 samples: schizophrenia without child maltreatment (n = 18), schizophrenia with child maltreatment (n = 16), and DID (n = 29). Compared with the schizophrenia groups, the DID sample was more likely to have voices starting before 18, hear more than 2 voices, have both child and adult voices and experience tactile and visual hallucinations. The 3 groups were similar in that voice content was incongruent with mood and the location was more likely internal than external. Pathological dissociation predicted several aspects of voice hearing and appears an important variable in voice hearing, at least where maltreatment is present.
- SourceAvailable from: Katarzyna Sitko[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose Although there is considerable evidence that adversities in childhood such as social deprivation, sexual abuse, separation from parents, neglect and exposure to deviant parental communication are associated with psychosis in later life, most studies have considered broad diagnoses as outcomes. In this review we consider evidence for pathways between specific types of adversity and specific symptoms of psychosis. Methods We present theoretical arguments for expecting some degree of specificity (although by no means perfect specificity) between different kinds of adversity and different symptoms of psychosis. We review studies that have investigated social–environmental risk factors for thought disorder, auditory–verbal hallucinations and paranoid delusions, and consider how these risk factors may impact on specific psychological and biological mechanisms. Results Communication deviance in parents has been implicated in the development of thought disorder in offspring, childhood sexual abuse has been particularly implicated in auditory–verbal hallucinations, and attachment-disrupting events (e.g. neglect, being brought up in an institution) may have particular potency for the development of paranoid symptoms. Current research on psychological mechanisms underlying these symptoms suggests a number of symptom-specific mechanisms that may explain these associations. Conclusions Few studies have considered symptoms, underlying mechanisms and different kinds of adversity at the same time. Future research along these lines will have the potential to elucidate the mechanisms that lead to severe mental illness, and may have considerable clinical implications.Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology 06/2014; · 2.58 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present a case of a middle-aged male patient with a long history of conversion disorder and histrionic personality, who presented with newly onset psychotic symptoms while being engaged to treatment with a community mental health team in a primary care setting. The symptoms could not be attributed to an organic cause. After a short course of olanzapine treatment which caused adverse effects, the symptomatology responded well to low dose amisulpride. Conversion symptoms were stable throughout the psychotic episode. This case illustrates the complex interplay between disorders classified in different categories (somatoform versus psychotic disorders).Case reports in psychiatry. 01/2014; 2014:804930.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Dissociative disorders are a set of disorders defined by a disturbance affecting functions that are normally integrated with a prevalence of 2.4 percent in industrialised countries. These disorders are often poorly diagnosed or misdiagnosed because of sharing common clinical features with psychotic disorders, but requiring a very different trajectory of care. Repeated clinical situations in a crisis centre in Geneva provided us with a critical overview of current evidence of knowledge in clinical and etiopathological field about dissociative disorders. Because of their multiple expressions and the overlap with psychotic disorders, we focused on the clinical aspects using three different situations to better understand their specificity and to extend our thinking to the relevance of terms "neurosis" and "psychosis." Finally, we hope that this work might help physicians and psychiatrists to become more aware of this complex set of disorders while making a diagnosis.Case reports in psychiatry. 01/2014; 2014:425892.