Correlates of self-medication for anxiety disorders: results from the National Epidemiolgic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions.
ABSTRACT Self-medication is a common behavior among individuals with anxiety disorders, yet few studies have examined the correlates of this behavior. The current study addresses this issue by exploring the pattern of mental health service use and quality of life among people who self-medicate for anxiety. Data came from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions and was limited to the subsample of individuals meeting criteria for an anxiety disorder in the past 12 months (n = 4880). Multiple regression analyses compared 3 groups-(1) no self-medication, (2) self-medication with alcohol, and (3) self-medication with drugs, on mental health service use and quality of life. After adjusting for potentially confounding covariates, individuals who engaged in self-medication had significantly higher service use compared with people with anxiety disorders who did not self-medicate (adjusted odds ratio = 1.41, 95% CI = 1.06-1.89). Self-medication was also associated with a lower mental health-related quality of life compared with those who did not self-medicate. Clinicians should recognize and respond to the unique needs of this particular subpopulation of individuals with anxiety disorders.
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ABSTRACT: Previous research has demonstrated a greater-than-expected association between social phobia and alcohol use disorders. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that drinking alcohol reduces social phobic anxiety. Treatment-seeking individuals with social phobia (N = 40) were asked to give two impromptu speeches. Twenty subjects received a placebo alcoholic drink before both speeches, and 20 subjects received a placebo before the first speech, followed by a moderate dose of alcohol before the second speech. Subjective anxiety ratings, heart rate, and cognitions related to social anxiety were used as measures of anxiety. Repeated measures analyses of variance yielded no significant differences in anxiety (subjective, physiological, cognitive) between the alcohol and placebo groups. Current and past drinking habits did not significantly alter the effect of alcohol on anxiety. The belief that one received alcohol was significantly related to levels of subjective anxiety and negative cognitions. Alcohol does not directly reduce social phobic anxiety. The belief that one received alcohol may reduce social anxiety.American Journal of Psychiatry 09/1999; 156(8):1237-43. · 14.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epidemiologic information is important to inform etiological research and service delivery planning. However, current information on the epidemiology of alcohol use disorders in the United States is lacking. To present nationally representative findings on the prevalence, correlates, psychiatric comorbidity, and treatment of DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence. Design, Setting, and Face-to-face interviews with a representative US adult sample (N = 43 093). Lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV alcohol abuse and dependence. Prevalence of lifetime and 12-month alcohol abuse was 17.8% and 4.7%; prevalence of lifetime and 12-month alcohol dependence was 12.5% and 3.8%. Alcohol dependence was significantly more prevalent among men, whites, Native Americans, younger and unmarried adults, and those with lower incomes. Current alcohol abuse was more prevalent among men, whites, and younger and unmarried individuals while lifetime rates were highest among middle-aged Americans. Significant disability was particularly associated with alcohol dependence. Only 24.1% of those with alcohol dependence were ever treated, slightly less than the treatment rate found 10 years earlier. Strong associations between other substance use disorders and alcohol use disorders (odds ratios, 2.0-18.7) were lower but remained strong and significant (odds ratios, 1.8-7.5) when controlling for other comorbidity. Significant associations between mood, anxiety, and personality disorders and alcohol dependence (odds ratios, 2.1-4.8) were reduced in number and magnitude (odds ratios, 1.5-2.0) when controlling for other comorbidity. Alcohol abuse and dependence remain highly prevalent and disabling. Comorbidity of alcohol dependence with other substance disorders appears due in part to unique factors underlying etiology for each pair of disorders studied while comorbidity of alcohol dependence with mood, anxiety, and personality disorders appears more attributable to factors shared among these other disorders. Persistent low treatment rates given the availability of effective treatments indicate the need for vigorous education efforts for the public and professionals.Archives of General Psychiatry 08/2007; 64(7):830-42. · 13.77 Impact Factor
- Quarterly journal of studies on alcohol 07/1956; 17(2):296-305.