Safety and Efficacy of Romiplostim in Patients With Lower-Risk Myelodysplastic Syndrome and Thrombocytopenia

Radboud University Nijmegen, Nymegen, Gelderland, Netherlands
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 17.88). 12/2009; 28(3):437-44. DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2009.24.7999
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To assess the safety and efficacy of romiplostim, a peptibody that increases platelet production, for treatment of thrombocytopenic patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS).
Eligible patients had lower-risk MDS (International Prognostic Scoring System low or intermediate 1), a mean baseline platelet count <or= 50 x 10(9)/L, and were only receiving supportive care. Patients received three injections of 300, 700, 1,000, or 1,500 microg romiplostim at weekly intervals. After evaluation of platelet response at week 4, patients could continue to receive romiplostim in a treatment extension phase for up to 1 year.
All 44 patients who enrolled completed the treatment phase; 41 patients continued into the extension phase. Median platelet counts increased throughout the study, from fewer than 30 x 10(9)/L at baseline to 60, 73, 38, and 58 x 10(9)/L at week 4 for the 300-, 700-, 1,000-, and 1,500 -microg dose cohorts, respectively. A durable platelet response (per International Working Group 2000 criteria for 8 consecutive weeks independent of platelet transfusions) was achieved by 19 patients (46%). The incidence of bleeding events and platelet transfusions was less common among patients who achieved a durable platelet response than those who did not (4.3 v 39.3 per 100 patient-weeks). Forty-three patients (98%) reported one or more adverse events. Treatment-related serious adverse events were reported in five patients (11%), all of whom were in the 1,500-microg dose cohort. Two patients progressed to acute myeloid leukemia during the study. No neutralizing antibodies to either romiplostim or endogenous thrombopoietin were seen.
Romiplostim appeared well-tolerated in this study and may be a useful treatment for patients with MDS and thrombocytopenia.

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