Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Activation Is a Prerequisite Signal for Cytokine Production and Chemotaxis in Human Mast Cells

Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1881, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.92). 12/2009; 184(2):564-72. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.0902931
Source: PubMed


In addition to regulating mast cell homeostasis, the activation of KIT following ligation by stem cell factor promotes a diversity of mast cell responses, including cytokine production and chemotaxis. Although we have previously defined a role for the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 in these responses, it is clear that other signals are also required for maximal KIT-dependent cytokine production and chemotaxis. In this study, we provide evidence to support a role for glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) in such regulation in human mast cells (HuMCs). GSK3beta was observed to be constitutively activated in HuMCs. This activity was inhibited by knockdown of GSK3beta protein following transduction of these cells with GSK3beta-targeted shRNA. This resulted in a marked attenuation in the ability of KIT to promote chemotaxis and, in synergy with FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling, cytokine production. GSK3beta regulated KIT-dependent mast cell responses independently of mammalian target of rapamycin. However, evidence from the knockdown studies suggested that GSK3beta was required for activation of the MAPKs, p38, and JNK and downstream phosphorylation of the transcription factors, Jun and activating transcription factor 2, in addition to activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. These studies provide evidence for a novel prerequisite priming mechanism for KIT-dependent responses regulated by GSK3beta in HuMCs.

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    • "Here we showed that inhibition of GSK3β attenuates the MAPK activation and the down-stream cytokine transcription in toxin-induced ALF. Such notion was also demonstrated by a recent report showing GSK3β in mediating MAPK activation and cytokine production by mast cells [30]. JNK activation is an important component of the stress response in cells, but when JNK activation is sustained, it is believed to promote cell injury and death. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glycogen synthase kinase 3β(GSK3β) is a ubiquitous serine-threonine protein kinase that participates in numerous cellular processes and disease pathophysiology. We aimed to determine therapeutic potential of GSK3β inhibition and its mechanism in a well-characterized model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced model of acute liver failure (ALF). In a murine ALF model induced by D-GalN(700 mg/kg)/LPS(10 µg/kg), we analyzed GSK3β mechanisms using a specific chemical inhibitor, SB216763, and detected the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Mice were administered SB216763 at 2 h before or after D-GalN/LPS injection, respectively, and then sacrificed 6 h after D-GalN/LPS treatment to evaluate its prophylactic and therapeutic function. The lethality rate, liver damage, ERS, cytokine expression, MAP kinase, hepatocyte apoptosis and expression of TLR 4 were evaluated, respectively. Whether the inhibition of GSK3β activation protected hepatocyte from ERS-induced apoptosis was investigated in vitro. GSK3β became quickly activated (dephosphorylated) upon D-GalN/LPS exposure. Administration of SB216763 not only ameliorated liver injury, as evidenced by reduced transaminase levels, and well-preserved liver architecture, but also decreased lethality. Moreover, GSK3β inhibition resulted in down-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins C/EBP-homologous protein(CHOP) and caspase-12, which are related to ERS. To further demonstrate the role of ERS, we found that GSK3β inhibition protected hepatocyte from ERS-induced cell death. GSK3β inhibition down-regulated the MAPK pathways, reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of TLR4. Our findings demonstrate the key function of GSK3β signaling in the pathophysiology of ALF, especially in regulating the ERS, and provide a rationale for targeting GSK3β as a potential therapeutic strategy to ameliorate ALF.
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