Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Activation Is a Prerequisite Signal for Cytokine Production and Chemotaxis in Human Mast Cells

Laboratory of Allergic Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892-1881, USA.
The Journal of Immunology (Impact Factor: 4.92). 12/2009; 184(2):564-72. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.0902931
Source: PubMed


In addition to regulating mast cell homeostasis, the activation of KIT following ligation by stem cell factor promotes a diversity of mast cell responses, including cytokine production and chemotaxis. Although we have previously defined a role for the mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 in these responses, it is clear that other signals are also required for maximal KIT-dependent cytokine production and chemotaxis. In this study, we provide evidence to support a role for glycogen synthase kinase 3beta (GSK3beta) in such regulation in human mast cells (HuMCs). GSK3beta was observed to be constitutively activated in HuMCs. This activity was inhibited by knockdown of GSK3beta protein following transduction of these cells with GSK3beta-targeted shRNA. This resulted in a marked attenuation in the ability of KIT to promote chemotaxis and, in synergy with FcepsilonRI-mediated signaling, cytokine production. GSK3beta regulated KIT-dependent mast cell responses independently of mammalian target of rapamycin. However, evidence from the knockdown studies suggested that GSK3beta was required for activation of the MAPKs, p38, and JNK and downstream phosphorylation of the transcription factors, Jun and activating transcription factor 2, in addition to activation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB. These studies provide evidence for a novel prerequisite priming mechanism for KIT-dependent responses regulated by GSK3beta in HuMCs.

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    • "In A and D, single and double asterisk represents P < 0.05 and P < 0.005, respectively. JOURNAL OF CELLULAR BIOCHEMISTRY GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE KINASE 3 INCREASES IL-1B INDUCED NO with other cell types [Martin et al., 2005; Rodionova et al., 2007; Rådinger et al., 2009] "
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    ABSTRACT: Excessive nitric oxide from the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) increases shock-induced hepatic injury, hepatic dysfunction, inflammation, and mortality in animal models. Cytokines increase the expression of iNOS in hepatocytes, but the signaling mechanisms involved are not completely understood. We have previously demonstrated that Akt mediates the inhibitory effect of cAMP and insulin on cytokine-induced hepatocyte iNOS expression. We hypothesized that glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3), a target of Akt phosphorylation, would regulate hepatocyte iNOS expression. In cultured rat hepatocytes, GSK3 inhibitors decreased IL-1β mediated nitric oxide (NO) production and iNOS protein expression, while the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002 increased the cytokine-mediated NO production and iNOS expression. Over-expression of the constitutively active form of GSK3β enhanced IL-1β-mediated iNOS expression. GSK3 catalyzes the phosphorylation of c-Jun at the c-terminal Thr239 that facilitates c-Jun degradation. Inhibition of GSK3 with SB216763 and lithium chloride significantly reduced, whereas blocking PI3K/Akt increased phosphorylation of c-Jun at Thr239. The levels of total-c-Jun and c-Jun phosphorylated at Ser63 inversely correlated with c-Jun phosphorylated at Thr239, GSK3 activation and iNOS expression. Over-expression of a dominant negative c-Jun not only caused an increase in iNOS promoter activity and iNOS protein expression but was also able to reverse the SB216763-mediated suppression of iNOS. These results demonstrate that GSK3, a downstream target of Akt, regulates IL-1β-stimulated iNOS expression in hepatocytes by directly phosphorylating c-Jun in an inhibitory manner. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
    Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 01/2015; 116(1). DOI:10.1002/jcb.24951 · 3.26 Impact Factor
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    • "Here we showed that inhibition of GSK3β attenuates the MAPK activation and the down-stream cytokine transcription in toxin-induced ALF. Such notion was also demonstrated by a recent report showing GSK3β in mediating MAPK activation and cytokine production by mast cells [30]. JNK activation is an important component of the stress response in cells, but when JNK activation is sustained, it is believed to promote cell injury and death. "
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    ABSTRACT: Glycogen synthase kinase 3β(GSK3β) is a ubiquitous serine-threonine protein kinase that participates in numerous cellular processes and disease pathophysiology. We aimed to determine therapeutic potential of GSK3β inhibition and its mechanism in a well-characterized model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced model of acute liver failure (ALF). In a murine ALF model induced by D-GalN(700 mg/kg)/LPS(10 µg/kg), we analyzed GSK3β mechanisms using a specific chemical inhibitor, SB216763, and detected the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Mice were administered SB216763 at 2 h before or after D-GalN/LPS injection, respectively, and then sacrificed 6 h after D-GalN/LPS treatment to evaluate its prophylactic and therapeutic function. The lethality rate, liver damage, ERS, cytokine expression, MAP kinase, hepatocyte apoptosis and expression of TLR 4 were evaluated, respectively. Whether the inhibition of GSK3β activation protected hepatocyte from ERS-induced apoptosis was investigated in vitro. GSK3β became quickly activated (dephosphorylated) upon D-GalN/LPS exposure. Administration of SB216763 not only ameliorated liver injury, as evidenced by reduced transaminase levels, and well-preserved liver architecture, but also decreased lethality. Moreover, GSK3β inhibition resulted in down-regulation of pro-apoptotic proteins C/EBP-homologous protein(CHOP) and caspase-12, which are related to ERS. To further demonstrate the role of ERS, we found that GSK3β inhibition protected hepatocyte from ERS-induced cell death. GSK3β inhibition down-regulated the MAPK pathways, reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines and decreased expression of TLR4. Our findings demonstrate the key function of GSK3β signaling in the pathophysiology of ALF, especially in regulating the ERS, and provide a rationale for targeting GSK3β as a potential therapeutic strategy to ameliorate ALF.
    PLoS ONE 09/2012; 7(9):e45202. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0045202 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: In mast cells, crosslinking the high-affinity IgE receptor (FcɛRI) results in a dynamic reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton that is associated with membrane ruffling. Although the signaling involved in degranulation has been well described, it is less understood in morphological changes. In this study, we investigated the specific role of conventional protein kinase C (cPKC), a crucial signal for degranulation, in antigen-induced membrane ruffling of mast cells. In RBL-2H3 mast cells, antigen induced a long-lasting membrane ruffling, which was blocked with late-added Gö6976, a specific cPKC inhibitor, indicating that sustained activation of cPKC is required for maintaining the reaction. Immunofluorescence staining of endogenous PKCα/β and real-time imaging of transfected green fluorescent protein-tagged PKCα/β demonstrated that in response to antigen both PKCα and PKCβI quickly translocated to the plasma membrane and were colocalized with actin filaments at the ruffling sites. These reactions were blocked by expression of kinase-negative PKCβI, but not kinase-negative PKCα, and by treatment with a specific PKCβ inhibitor, LY333531. The adhesion, spreading and membrane ruffling of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs), which are mostly nonadhesive, were promoted by both antigen and thymeleatoxin. Treatment with Gö6976 abolished all these reactions. Antigen-mediated migration of BMMC was also sensitive to Gö6076 and LY333531. In addition, BMMC adhesion by and migration toward stem cell factor were shown to be dependent on cPKC. Thus, cPKC, at least PKCβ subtype, may be critical for the dynamic morphological changes that lead to the migration of mast cells.
    Immunology and Cell Biology 05/2010; 89(1):149-59. DOI:10.1038/icb.2010.67 · 4.15 Impact Factor
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