Novel role of Acinetobacter baumannii RND efflux transporters in mediating decreased susceptibility to biocides

Department of Veterinary Preventive Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy (Impact Factor: 5.31). 12/2009; 65(2):228-32. DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkp427
Source: PubMed


Biocides and dyes are commonly employed in hospital and laboratory settings. We investigated the biocide susceptibilities of a rapidly emerging pathogen, Acinetobacter baumannii, and the underlying molecular mechanisms, with a primary focus on resistance-nodulation-cell division (RND) efflux systems.
Biocide susceptibilities, efflux and in vitro inactivation profiles were monitored in the presence/absence of efflux pump inhibitors. The RND transporters encoded by adeB and adeJ were detected by PCR; null mutants were constructed in the native host. Expression of adeB and adeJ in clinical isolates was assayed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR.
Susceptibility testing and phenotypic assays demonstrated the role of active efflux in mediating decreased susceptibility to biocides. Inactivation of either the adeB or adeJ transporter gene led to increased susceptibility to biocides. RT-PCR analysis exhibited increased adeB and adeJ expression in clinical isolates.
This is the first study demonstrating the role of efflux pumps in mediating decreased susceptibility to disinfectants and other chemical substrates in A. baumannii.

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    • "Its high genetic plasticity allows it to rapidly adapt to stressful or otherwise unfavorable conditions by acquiring mutations, plasmids, or transposable elements. Moreover, A. baumannii species exhibit a remarkable ability to develop antibiotic resistance, which may quickly evolve into a multiresistant pattern following the acquisition of different resistance mechanisms, including β-lactamases, efflux pumps, porins, penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), and methylase enzymes [1,2,8–17]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Acinetobacterbaumannii has emerged as a dangerous opportunistic pathogen, with many strains able to form biofilms and thus cause persistent infections. The aim of the present study was to use high-throughput sequencing techniques to establish complete transcriptome profiles of planktonic (free-living) and sessile (biofilm) forms of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 and thereby identify differences in their gene expression patterns. Collections of mRNA from planktonic (both exponential and stationary phase cultures) and sessile (biofilm) cells were sequenced. Six mRNA libraries were prepared following the mRNA-Seq protocols from Illumina. Reads were obtained in a HiScanSQ platform and mapped against the complete genome to describe the complete mRNA transcriptomes of planktonic and sessile cells. The results showed that the gene expression pattern of A. baumannii biofilm cells was distinct from that of planktonic cells, including 1621 genes over-expressed in biofilms relative to stationary phase cells and 55 genes expressed only in biofilms. These differences suggested important changes in amino acid and fatty acid metabolism, motility, active transport, DNA-methylation, iron acquisition, transcriptional regulation, and quorum sensing, among other processes. Disruption or deletion of five of these genes caused a significant decrease in biofilm formation ability in the corresponding mutant strains. Among the genes over-expressed in biofilm cells were those in an operon involved in quorum sensing. One of them, encoding an acyl carrier protein, was shown to be involved in biofilm formation as demonstrated by the significant decrease in biofilm formation by the corresponding knockout strain. The present work serves as a basis for future studies examining the complex network systems that regulate bacterial biofilm formation and maintenance.
    PLoS ONE 08/2013; 8(8):e72968. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0072968 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Among Acinetobacter spp., A. baumannii is the most frequently implicated in nosocomial infections, in particular in intensive care units. It was initially thought that multidrug resistance (MDR) in this species was due mainly to horizontal acquisition of resistance genes. However, it has recently become obvious that increased expression of chromosomal genes for efflux systems plays a major role in MDR. Among the five superfamilies of pumps, resistance-nodulation-division (RND) systems are the most prevalent in multiply resistant A. baumannii. RND pumps typically exhibit a wide substrate range that can include antibiotics, dyes, biocides, detergents, and antiseptics. Overexpression of AdeABC, secondary to mutations in the adeRS genes encoding a two-component regulatory system, constitutes a major mechanism of multiresistance in A. baumannii. AdeIJK, intrinsic to this species, is responsible for natural resistance, but since overexpression above a certain threshold is toxic for the host, its contribution to acquired resistance is minimal. The recently described AdeFGH, probably regulated by a LysR-type transcriptional regulator, also confers multidrug resistance when overexpressed. Non-RND efflux systems, such as CraA, AmvA, AbeM, and AbeS, have also been characterized for A. baumannii, as have AdeXYZ and AdeDE for other Acinetobacter spp. Finally, acquired narrow-spectrum efflux pumps, such as the major facilitator superfamily (MFS) members TetA, TetB, CmlA, and FloR and the small multidrug resistance (SMR) member QacE in Acinetobacter spp., have been detected and are mainly encoded by mobile genetic elements.
    Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2010; 55(3):947-53. DOI:10.1128/AAC.01388-10 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the role of outer membrane proteins in Acinetobacter baumannii resistant to imipenem, 2 strains were procured from the same patient. The imipenem-resistant strain was obtained following a period of imipenem treatment in vivo. The multilocus sequence typing and repetitive extragenic palindromic PCR results indicated that the imipenem-resistant strain originated from the sensitive one. Isoelectric focusing detected no carbapenemases, with neither OXA carbapenemases nor metallo-β-lactamases found. Mass spectrophotometric analysis revealed that 3 outer membrane proteins were expressed differentially in the 2 strains: 2 downregulated proteins (OprD and CarO) and 1 upregulated the 34-kDa efflux pump protein in the resistant strain. A 32-fold decrease in the MIC for imipenem in the presence of Phe-Arg-β-naphthylamide in the same strain indicated a possible involvement of the efflux pump mechanism in its resistance, which was consistent with the findings that the mRNA expression of the 34-kDa efflux pump gene was almost fivefold upregulated in the imipenem-resistant strain compared with that in the imipenem-sensitive strain. Such a significant difference, however, was not found in the expression of AdeB and AdeJ between the 2 strains, and AdeE was not detected. Our results suggested that downregulation of outer membrane proteins in conjunction with efflux pump overexpression might contribute to imipenem resistance induced in vivo in A. baumannii.
    Chemotherapy 02/2011; 57(1):77-84. DOI:10.1159/000323620 · 1.29 Impact Factor
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