Phenotypic and genotypic Helicobacter pylori clarithromycin resistance and therapeutic outcome: benefits and limits.
ABSTRACT Primary clarithromycin resistance is increasing worldwide, and it has been regarded as the main factor reducing the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori therapy. However, the clinical consequence of either phenotypic or genotypic resistance still remains unclear. This study aimed to evaluate: (i) the concordance between phenotypic (culture) and genotypic (real-time PCR) tests in assessing primary clarithromycin resistance; and (ii) the role of both in therapeutic outcome.
A post hoc subgroup study was selected from a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, enrolling 146 patients with dyspepsia or peptic ulcers never previously treated. Real-time PCR and Etest on bacterial culture for assessing clarithromycin resistance were performed. [(13)C]urea breath test (UBT), histology and rapid urease tests at entry and UBT after 4-8 weeks were used to assess infection and eradication. All patients received a 10 day therapy.
Prevalence of clarithromycin phenotypic resistance was significantly lower as compared with genotypic resistance (18.4% versus 37.6%, P < 0.001). A concordance between the two methods was present in 71.2% of cases. A significant difference in the eradication rate was seen between clarithromycin-susceptible and -resistant strains, when assessed with either Etest (92.4% versus 55.5%, P < 0.001) or a PCR-based method (94.5% versus 70.9%; P < 0.001). Of note, the eradication rate showed the lowest value (30.7%) when phenotypic bacterial resistance was genetically linked to the A2143G point mutation.
This study showed that: (i) there is a relevant discordance between the two methods; and (ii) phenotypic clarithromycin resistance markedly reduces H. pylori eradication when it is linked to a specific point mutation.
Article: Primary resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole and amoxicillin of Helicobacter pylori isolated from Tunisian patients with peptic ulcers and gastritis: a prospective multicentre study.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The frequency of primary resistance to antibiotics in H. pylori isolates is increasing worldwide. In Tunisia, there are limited data regarding the pattern of H. pylori antibiotic primary resistance. To evaluate the primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin, metronidazole and amoxicillin and to detect the mutations involved in clarithromycin resistance. 273 strains isolated from adults and children were enrolled. The primary resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole and amoxicillin was evaluated by means of E-test minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). The real-time PCR using Scorpion primers was performed in all cases to assess clarithromycin primary resistance and point mutations involved. No resistance to amoxicillin was detected. For adults, resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole was found respectively in 14.6% and 56.8%, and respectively in 18.8% and 25% in children. Overall, the rates of global primary resistance to clarithromycin and metronidazole in Tunisia were respectively determined in 15.4% and 51.3%.By the use of Scorpion PCR, the A2143G was the most frequent point mutation observed (88.1%), followed by the A2142G (11.9%); the A2142C was not found and 18 of 42 patients (42.8%) were infected by both the resistant and the susceptible genotype.The association of clarithromycin resistance with gender was not statistically significant, but metronidazole resistant strains were isolated more frequently in females (67.8%) than in males (32.2%) and the difference was significant. As for gastroduodenal diseases, the difference between strains isolated from patients with peptic ulceration and those with non peptic ulceration was not statistically significant. When about the distribution of resistant strains to clarithromycin and metronidazole between the three Tunisian cities (Tunis, Menzel Bourguiba and Mahdia), the difference was not statistically significant. Local data regarding the primary resistance of H. pylori to clarithromycin, metronidazole and amoxicillin and the main genetic mutation involved in clarithromycin resistance in vivo (A2143G) are necessary to prove a clear need for a periodic evaluation of antibiotic consumption and new therapeutic strategies in Tunisia in order to avoid the emergence of resistant strains.Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 01/2010; 9:22. · 2.64 Impact Factor
Article: Primary resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole and amoxicillin of Helicobacter pylori isolated from Tunisian patients with peptic ulcers and gastritis: a …[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: The frequency of primary resistance to antibiotics in H. pylori isolates is increasing worldwide. In Tunisia, there are limited data regarding the pattern of H. pylori antibiotic primary resistance.