Identification and functional characterization of the NanH extracellular sialidase from Corynebacterium diphtheriae.
ABSTRACT Corynebacterium diphtheriae, a pathogenic Gram-positive bacterium, contains sialic acids on its cell surface, but no genes related to sialic acid decoration or metabolism have been reported in C. diphtheriae. In the present study, we have identified a putative sialidase gene, nanH, from C. diphtheriae KCTC3075 and characterized its product for enzyme activity. Interestingly, the recombinant NanH protein was secreted as a catalytically active sialidase into the periplasmic space in Escherichia coli, while the short region at its C-terminus was truncated by proteolysis. We reconstructed a truncated NanH protein (His(6)-NanH(DeltaN)) devoid of its signal sequence as a mature enzyme fused with the 6xHis tag at the N-terminal region. The purified His(6)-NanH(DeltaN) can cleave alpha-2,3- and alpha-2,6-linked sialic acid from sialic acid-containing substrates. In addition, even though the efficiency was low, the recombinant His(6)-NanH(DeltaN) was able to catalyse the transfer of sialic acid using several sialoconjugates as donor, suggesting that the reversible nature of C. diphtheriae NanH can be used for the synthesis of sialyl oligosaccharides via transglycosylation reaction.
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ABSTRACT: To date the genus Corynebacterium comprises 88 species. More than half of these are connected to human and animal infections, with the most prominent member of the pathogenic species being Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which is also the type species of the genus. Corynebacterium species are characterized by a complex cell wall architecture: the plasma membrane of these bacteria is followed by a peptidoglycan layer, which itself is covalently linked to a polymer of arabinogalactan. Bound to this, an outer layer of mycolic acids is found which is functionally equivalent to the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. As final layer, free polysaccharides, glycolipids, and proteins are found. The composition of the different substructures of the corynebacterial cell envelope and their influence on pathogenicity are discussed in this paper.ISRN microbiology. 01/2013; 2013:935736.
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ABSTRACT: The ability to use the sialic acid, N-acetylneuraminic acid, Neu5Ac, as a nutrient has been characterized in a number of bacteria, most of which are human pathogens that encounter this molecule because of its presence on mucosal surfaces. The soil bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum also has a full complement of genes for sialic acid catabolism, and we demonstrate that it can use Neu5Ac as a sole source of carbon and energy and isolate mutants with a much reduced growth lag on Neu5Ac. Disruption of the cg2937 gene, encoding a component of a predicted sialic acid-specific ABC transporter, results in a complete loss of growth of C. glutamicum on Neu5Ac and also a complete loss of [(14) C]-Neu5Ac uptake into cells. Uptake of [(14) C]-Neu5Ac is induced by pregrowth on Neu5Ac, but the additional presence of glucose prevents this induction. The demonstration that a member of the Actinobacteria can transport and catabolize Neu5Ac efficiently suggests that sialic acid metabolism has a physiological role in the soil environment.FEMS Microbiology Letters 08/2012; 336(2):131-8. · 2.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Sialidases release the terminal sialic acid residue from a wide range of sialic acid-containing polysaccharides. Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, a symbiotic commensal microbe, resides in and dominates the human intestinal tract. We characterized the recombinant sialidase from B. thetaiotaomicron (BTSA) and demonstrated that it has broad substrate specificity with a relative activity of 97, 100 and 64 for 2,3-, 2,6- and 2,8-linked sialic substrates, respectively. The hydrolysis activity of BTSA was inhibited by a transition state analogue, 2-deoxy-2,3-dehydro-N-acetyl neuraminic acid, by competitive inhibition with a Ki value of 35 μM. The structure of BSTA was determined at a resolution of 2.3 Å. This structure exhibited a unique carbohydrate-binding domain (CBM) at its N-terminus (a.a. 23-190) that is adjacent to the catalytic domain (a.a. 191-535). The catalytic domain has a conserved arginine triad with a wide-open entrance for the substrate that exposes the catalytic residue to the surface. Unlike other pathogenic sialidases, the polysaccharide-binding site in the CBM is near the active site and possibly holds and positions the polysaccharide substrate directly at the active site. The structural feature of a wide substrate-binding groove and closer proximity of the polysaccharide-binding site to the active site could be a unique signature of the commensal sialidase BTSA and provide a molecular basis for its pharmaceutical application.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 05/2013; · 4.66 Impact Factor