Interconnecting molecular pathways in the pathogenesis and drug sensitivity of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
ABSTRACT To identify dysregulated pathways in distinct phases of NOTCH1-mediated T-cell leukemogenesis, as well as small-molecule inhibitors that could synergize with or substitute for gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) therapy, we compared gene expression profiles in a Notch1-induced mouse model of T-ALL with those in human T-ALL. The overall patterns of NOTCH1-mediated gene expression in human and mouse T-ALLs were remarkably similar, as defined early in transformation in the mouse by the regulation of MYC and its target genes and activation of nuclear factor-kappaB and PI3K/AKT pathways. Later events in murine Notch1-mediated leukemogenesis included down-regulation of genes encoding tumor suppressors and negative cell cycle regulators. Gene set enrichment analysis and connectivity map algorithm predicted that small-molecule inhibitors, including heat-shock protein 90, histone deacetylase, PI3K/AKT, and proteasome inhibitors, could reverse the gene expression changes induced by NOTCH1. When tested in vitro, histone deacetylase, PI3K and proteasome inhibitors synergized with GSI in suppressing T-ALL cell growth in GSI-sensitive cells. Interestingly, alvespimycin, a potent inhibitor of the heat-shock protein 90 molecular chaperone, markedly inhibited the growth of both GSI-sensitive and -resistant T-ALL cells, suggesting that its loss disrupts signal transduction pathways crucial for the growth and survival of T-ALL cells.
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ABSTRACT: Loss of the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) protein is a common initiating event in colon cancer. Here we show that thymocyte-specific loss of APC deregulated beta-catenin signaling and suppressed Notch-dependent transcription. These events promoted the proliferation of cells of the double-negative 3 and 4 stages and reduced rearrangements between the variable, diversity and joining regions of the gene encoding T cell receptor (TCR) beta, encouraging developmental progression of aberrant thymocytes lacking pre-TCR and alphabeta TCR. Simultaneously, the loss of APC prolonged the mitotic metaphase-to-anaphase checkpoint and impaired chromosome segregation, blocking development beyond the double-negative 4 stage. The result was extensive thymic atrophy and increased frequencies of thymocytes with chromosomal abnormalities. Thus, loss of APC in immature thymocytes has consequences distinct from those of deregulation of beta-catenin signaling and is essential for T cell differentiation.Nature Immunology 09/2005; 6(8):800-9. · 26.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The multi tumor suppressor genes MTS1 (CDKN2 p16INK4A) and MTS2 (CDKN1, p15INK4B) located at 9p21-22 are inactivated in some human cancers via several mechanisms including deletion and hypermethylation. We have investigated the deletion and methylation status of MTS1 and MTS2 in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) of both T-cell (17 cases) and B-cell phenotypes (29 cases), and p16INK4A and p15INK4B mRNA expression in 36 of these cases. Biallelic or monoallelic loss of both MTS1 and MTS2 was observed in 12 cases of B-ALL and nine cases of T-ALL. Two cases of T-ALL showed deletion of MTS1 but not MTS2. The 5' CpG region of MTS2 was hypermethylated in 12 cases of precursor B-ALL and eight cases of T-ALL but no hypermethylation was found in the 5' CpG region of MTS1. All cases with homozygous deletion of MTS1 or MTS2 had no or low levels of mRNA expression and similar low levels of expression were found in cases in which MTS2 was present but fully methylated. Thus hypermethylation of MTS2, in contrast to MTS1, is frequent in childhood ALL. Furthermore our data show that although inactivation of MTS1 by deletion is common, inactivation of MTS2 by a combination of deletion and hypermethylation is more frequent in both B-ALL (20/29, 69%) and T-ALL (17/17, 100%). This suggests that both MTS1 and MTS2 are important targets of the 9p21-22 deletion.Oncogene 12/1997; 15(21):2609-14. · 7.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemias and lymphomas (T-ALL) are commonly associated with gain-of-function mutations in Notch1 that contribute to T-ALL induction and maintenance. Starting from an expression-profiling screen, we identified c-myc as a direct target of Notch1 in Notch-dependent T-ALL cell lines, in which Notch accounts for the majority of c-myc expression. In functional assays, inhibitors of c-myc interfere with the progrowth effects of activated Notch1, and enforced expression of c-myc rescues multiple Notch1-dependent T-ALL cell lines from Notch withdrawal. The existence of a Notch1-c-myc signaling axis was bolstered further by experiments using c-myc-dependent murine T-ALL cells, which are rescued from withdrawal of c-myc by retroviral transduction of activated Notch1. This Notch1-mediated rescue is associated with the up-regulation of endogenous murine c-myc and its downstream transcriptional targets, and the acquisition of sensitivity to Notch pathway inhibitors. Additionally, we show that primary murine thymocytes at the DN3 stage of development depend on ligand-induced Notch signaling to maintain c-myc expression. Together, these data implicate c-myc as a developmentally regulated direct downstream target of Notch1 that contributes to the growth of T-ALL cells.Genes & Development 09/2006; 20(15):2096-109. · 12.44 Impact Factor