8-pCPT-cGMP stimulates -ENaC activity in oocytes as an external ligand requiring specific nucleotide moieties
Department of Biochemistry, University of Texas Health Science Center at Tyler, Tyler, Texas, USA.AJP Renal Physiology (Impact Factor: 3.25). 12/2009; 298(2):F323-34. DOI: 10.1152/ajprenal.00307.2009
Epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) are regulated by protein kinase A, in addition to a broad spectrum of other protein kinases. It is not clear whether cGMP/PKG signaling might regulate ENaC activity. We examined the responses of alphabetagamma-ENaC channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes to 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cGMP (8-pCPT-cGMP), a cell-permeable cGMP analog. This compound stimulated human alphabetagamma-ENaC activity in a dose-dependent fashion, but cell-impermeable cGMP had no effect. Similar stimulatory effects of cGMP were observed in oocytes expressing either mouse or rat alphabetagamma-ENaC channels. The identical ion selectivity and amiloride sensitivity of the 8-pCPT-cGMP-activated currents to those of alphabetagamma-ENaC channels suggest that the cGMP-activated currents are associated with expressed ENaC. The PKGI activator Sp isomer of beta-phenyl-1,N(2)-etheno-8-bromo-cGMP did not elicit a rise in ENaC current and that the 8-pCPT-cGMP-induced activation of ENaC channels was blocked by incubating oocytes with a PKG inhibitor, but not with other cGMP-sensitive kinase inactivators for PKA, MEK, MAP, and PKC. Surprisingly, both site-directed mutation of putative consensus PKG phosphorylation sites and truncation of entire cytosolic NH(2)- and COOH-terminal tails did not alter the response to 8-pCPT-cGMP. The ENaC activity was activated to the same extent by 8-pCPT-cGMP in cells in which PKGII expression was knocked down using small interfering RNA. Analog to 8-CPT-cAMP, 8-pCPT-cGMP was capable of activating ENaC in the identical manner in cell-free outside-out patches. We conclude that the rapid upregulation of human alphabetagamma-ENaC activity in oocytes by external 8-pCPT-cGMP and 4-chlorothiolphenol-cAMP depends on the para-chlorophenylthiol and the hydroxy groups, and 8-pCPT-cGMP may serve as a novel ENaC ligand in addition to activating PKG signal.
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ABSTRACT: Patients with proteinuric kidney diseases often have symptoms of salt and water retention. It has been hypothesized that dysregulated sodium absorption is due to increased proteolytic cleavage of epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) and increased Na,K-ATPase expression. Microarray analysis identified a reduction in kidney corin mRNA expression in rat models of puromycin aminonucleoside-induced nephrotic syndrome and acute anti-Thy1 glomerulonephritis (GN). As atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) resistance is a mechanism accounting for volume retention, we analyzed the renal expression and function of corin; a type II transmembrane serine protease that converts pro-ANP to active ANP. Immunohistochemical analysis found that corin colocalized with ANP. The nephrotic and glomerulonephritic models exhibited concomitant increased pro-ANP and decreased ANP protein levels in the kidney consistent with low amounts of corin. Importantly, kidneys from corin knockout mice had increased amounts of renal β-ENaC and its activators, phosphodiesterase (PDE) 5 and protein kinase G II, when compared to wild-type mice. A similar expression profile was also found in cell culture suggesting the increase in PDE5 and kinase G II could account for the increase in β-ENaC seen in nephrotic syndrome and GN. Thus, we suggest that corin might be involved in the salt retention seen in glomerular diseases.Kidney International 10/2010; 78(7):650-9. DOI:10.1038/ki.2010.197 · 8.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: External Na(+) self-inhibition is an intrinsic feature of epithelial sodium channels (ENaC). Cpt-cAMP regulates heterologous guinea pig but not rat αβγ ENaC in a ligand-gated manner. We hypothesized that cpt-cAMP may eliminate the self-inhibition of human ENaC thereby open channels. Regulation of self-inhibition by this compound in oocytes was analyzed using the two-electrode voltage clamp and Ussing chamber setups. External cpt-cAMP stimulated human but not rat and murine αβγ ENaC in a dose- and external Na(+) concentration-dependent fashion. Intriguingly, cpt-cAMP activated human δβγ more potently than αβγ channels, suggesting that structural diversity in ectoloop between human α, δ, and those ENaC of other species determines the stimulating effects of cpt-cAMP. Cpt-cAMP increased the ratio of stationary and maximal currents. Mutants having abolished self-inhibition (β(ΔV348) and γ(H233R)) almost completely eliminated cpt-cAMP mediated activation of ENaC. On the other hand, mutants both enhancing self-inhibition and elevating cpt-cAMP sensitivity increased the stimulating effects of the compound. This compound, however, could not activate already fully opened channels, e.g., degenerin mutation (αβ(S520C)γ) and the proteolytically cleaved ENaC by plasmin. Cpt-cAMP activated native ENaC to the same extent as that for heterologous ENaC in human lung epithelial cells. Our data demonstrate that cpt-cAMP, a broadly used PKA activator, stimulates human αβγ and δβγ ENaC channels by relieving self-inhibition.Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 03/2011; 1808(7):1818-26. DOI:10.1016/j.bbamem.2011.03.004 · 4.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Salt absorption via alveolar epithelial Na(+) channels (ENaC) is a critical step for maintaining an airspace free of flooding. Previously, we found that 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-guanosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate-Na (CPT-cGMP) activated native and heterologous ENaC. To investigate the potential pharmacological relevance, we applied this compound intratracheally to human lungs and found that ex vivo alveolar fluid clearance was increased significantly. Furthermore, this compound eliminated self-inhibition in human lung H441 cells and in oocytes expressing human αβγ but not δβγ channels. To further elucidate this novel mechanism, we constructed mutants abolishing (β(ΔV348) and γ(H233R)) or augmenting (α(Y458A) and γ(M432G)) self-inhibition. The mutants eliminating self-inhibition lost their responses to CPT-cGMP, whereas those enhancing self-inhibition facilitated the stimulatory effects of this compound. CPT-cGMP was unable to activate a high P(o) mutant (β(S520C)) and plasmin proteolytically cleaved channels. Our data suggest that elimination of self-inhibition of αβγ ENaC may be a novel mechanism for CPT-cGMP to stimulate salt reabsorption in human lungs.American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology 05/2011; 45(5):1007-14. DOI:10.1165/rcmb.2011-0004OC · 3.99 Impact Factor
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