The E32K variant of PCSK9 exacerbates the phenotype of familial hypercholesterolaemia by increasing PCSK9 function and concentration in the circulation.
ABSTRACT Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates cholesterol trafficking by mediating degradation of cell-surface LDL receptors (LDLR). Gain-of-function PCSK9 mutations are known to increase plasma LDL-C levels. We attempted to find gain-of-function PCSK9 mutations in Japanese subjects and determine the frequency and impacts of these mutations, especially on circulating PCSK9 and LDL-C levels.
PCR-SSCP followed by direct sequence analysis was performed for all 12 exons and intronic junctions of the PCSK9 in 55 subjects with clinically diagnosed familial hypercholesterolaemia (clinical-FH), who were confirmed to have no LDLR mutations. Among the mutations detected, PCSK9 E32K was likely to be a gain-of-function mutation, and screening was performed by PCR-RFLP in clinical-FH and general Japanese controls. The levels of PCSK9 in plasma from subjects and in media of HepG2 cells transfected with PCSK9 constructs were measured by ELISA.
We detected 7 PCSK9 variants, including E32K. The frequency of PCSK9 E32K in clinical-FH (6.42%) was significantly higher than that in controls (1.71%). Three cases representing homozygous FH phenotypes were double heterozygous for PCSK9 E32K and LDLR C183S, C292X or K790X. Two cases were true homozygous for PCSK9 E32K; to our knowledge, these are the first true homozygotes for gain-of-function PCSK9 mutations reported to date. The PCSK9 E32K mutant had over 30% increased levels of PCSK9 in plasma from the subjects and in media of transiently transfected HepG2 cells as compared with those in controls. Furthermore, LDL-C levels in the PCSK9 E32K true homozygotes and heterozygotes were 2.10- and 1.47-fold higher than those in controls with comparable circulating PCSK9 levels, respectively, suggesting enhanced function of PCSK9 E32K.
We found 2 true homozygotes for PCSK9 E32K and 3 double heterozygotes for PCSK9 E32K and LDLR mutations associated with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolaemia. This study provided evidence that PCSK9 E32K significantly affects LDL-C levels via increased mass and function of PCSK9, and could exacerbate the clinical phenotypes of patients carrying LDLR mutations.
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ABSTRACT: We have reported further heterogeneity in familial autosomal-dominant hypercholesterolemia (FH) related to mutation in proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) gene previously named neural apoptosis regulated convertase 1 (Narc-1). Our aim was to define the metabolic bases of this new form of hypercholesterolemia. In vivo kinetics of apolipoprotein B100-containing lipoproteins using a 14-hour primed constant infusion of [2H3] leucine was conducted in 2 subjects carrying the mutation S127R in PCSK9, controls subjects, and FH subjects with known mutations on the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor gene (LDL-R). Apo B100 production, catabolism, and transfer rates were estimated from very LDL (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoprotein (IDL), and LDL tracer enrichments by compartmental analysis. PCSK9 mutation dramatically increased the production rate of apolipoprotein B100 (3-fold) compared with controls or LDL-R mutated subjects, related to direct overproduction of VLDL (3-fold), IDL (3-fold), and LDL (5-fold). The 2 subjects also showed a decrease in VLDL and IDL conversion (10% to 30% of the controls). LDL fractional catabolic rate was slightly decreased (by 30%) compared with controls but still higher than LDL-R-mutated subjects. These results showed that the effect of the S127R mutation of PCSK9 on plasma cholesterol homeostasis is mainly related to an overproduction of apolipoprotein B100.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 09/2004; 24(8):1448-53. · 6.34 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Several proprotein convertase subtilisin kexin type 9 (PCSK9) mutations lead to familial hypercholesterolemia by virtue of its role as a negative modulator of the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr). Here, we uncover that upon dietary challenge, the down-regulation of the LDLr is also a key mechanism by which PCSK9 modulates the hepatic production of apolipoprotein-B-containing lipoproteins. Thus, adenoviral-mediated overexpression of PCSK9 in 24-h fasted mice results in massive hyperlipidemia, due to a striking increase in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglycerides and apolipoprotein B100 hepatic output. Similar studies in LDLr (-/-) mice demonstrate that PCSK9-mediated alteration of VLDL output in the fasted state requires the LDLr. This increased production of VLDL was associated with a concomitant reduction of intrahepatic lipid stores as well as a lack of down-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activity and target genes expression. Finally, we show that PCSK9 hepatic expression is inhibited by the hypotriglyceridemic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist fenofibrate. In summary, the negative modulation of LDLr expression by PCSK9, which decreases plasma LDL clearance, also promotes an overproduction of nascent VLDL in vivo upon fasting.Endocrinology 11/2006; 147(10):4985-95. · 4.72 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Seven secretory mammalian kexin-like subtilases have been identified that cleave a variety of precursor proteins at monobasic and dibasic residues. The recently characterized pyrolysin-like subtilase SKI-1 cleaves proproteins at nonbasic residues. In this work we describe the properties of a proteinase K-like subtilase, neural apoptosis-regulated convertase 1 (NARC-1), representing the ninth member of the secretory subtilase family. Biosynthetic and microsequencing analyses of WT and mutant enzyme revealed that human and mouse pro-NARC-1 are autocatalytically and intramolecularly processed into NARC-1 at the (Y,I)VV(V,L)(L,M) downward arrow motif, a site that is representative of its enzymic specificity. In vitro peptide processing studies andor Ala substitutions of the P1-P5 sites suggested that hydrophobicaliphatic residues are more critical at P1, P3, and P5 than at P2 or P4. NARC-1 expression is highest in neuroepithelioma SK-N-MCIXC, hepatic BRL-3A, and in colon carcinoma LoVo-C5 cell lines. In situ hybridization and Northern blot analyses of NARC-1 expression during development in the adult and after partial hepatectomy revealed that it is expressed in cells that have the capacity to proliferate and differentiate. These include hepatocytes, kidney mesenchymal cells, intestinal ileum, and colon epithelia as well as embryonic brain telencephalon neurons. Accordingly, transfection of NARC-1 in primary cultures of embryonic day 13.5 telencephalon cells led to enhanced recruitment of undifferentiated neural progenitor cells into the neuronal lineage, suggesting that NARC-1 is implicated in the differentiation of cortical neurons.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 03/2003; 100(3):928-33. · 9.74 Impact Factor