The E32K variant of PCSK9 exacerbates the phenotype of familial hypercholesterolaemia by increasing PCSK9 function and concentration in the circulation
ABSTRACT Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) regulates cholesterol trafficking by mediating degradation of cell-surface LDL receptors (LDLR). Gain-of-function PCSK9 mutations are known to increase plasma LDL-C levels. We attempted to find gain-of-function PCSK9 mutations in Japanese subjects and determine the frequency and impacts of these mutations, especially on circulating PCSK9 and LDL-C levels.
PCR-SSCP followed by direct sequence analysis was performed for all 12 exons and intronic junctions of the PCSK9 in 55 subjects with clinically diagnosed familial hypercholesterolaemia (clinical-FH), who were confirmed to have no LDLR mutations. Among the mutations detected, PCSK9 E32K was likely to be a gain-of-function mutation, and screening was performed by PCR-RFLP in clinical-FH and general Japanese controls. The levels of PCSK9 in plasma from subjects and in media of HepG2 cells transfected with PCSK9 constructs were measured by ELISA.
We detected 7 PCSK9 variants, including E32K. The frequency of PCSK9 E32K in clinical-FH (6.42%) was significantly higher than that in controls (1.71%). Three cases representing homozygous FH phenotypes were double heterozygous for PCSK9 E32K and LDLR C183S, C292X or K790X. Two cases were true homozygous for PCSK9 E32K; to our knowledge, these are the first true homozygotes for gain-of-function PCSK9 mutations reported to date. The PCSK9 E32K mutant had over 30% increased levels of PCSK9 in plasma from the subjects and in media of transiently transfected HepG2 cells as compared with those in controls. Furthermore, LDL-C levels in the PCSK9 E32K true homozygotes and heterozygotes were 2.10- and 1.47-fold higher than those in controls with comparable circulating PCSK9 levels, respectively, suggesting enhanced function of PCSK9 E32K.
We found 2 true homozygotes for PCSK9 E32K and 3 double heterozygotes for PCSK9 E32K and LDLR mutations associated with autosomal dominant hypercholesterolaemia. This study provided evidence that PCSK9 E32K significantly affects LDL-C levels via increased mass and function of PCSK9, and could exacerbate the clinical phenotypes of patients carrying LDLR mutations.
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ABSTRACT: Autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia (ARH) is an extremely rare inherited disorder, the cause of which is mutations in the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor adaptor protein 1 (LDLRAP1) gene. Only 36 families with 14 different mutations have been reported in the literature to date. The clinical phenotype of ARH is milder than that of homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) caused by LDL receptor gene mutations. Recently, the lipoprotein metabolism of ARH was investigated in both humans and mice by several investigators, including ourselves. Based on these findings the preserved clearance of LDL receptor-dependent very-LDL (VLDL) may be a possible mechanism underlying the responsiveness to statins and the milder phenotype of ARH. Although ARH has been described as being "recessive," several studies, including ours, have indicated that a heterozygous carrier status of the LDLRAP1 gene is associated with mild hypercholesterolemia and exacerbates the phenotype of FH resulting from LDL receptor gene mutations. This review summarizes current understanding regarding ARH and its causative gene, LDLRAP1, and attempts to provide new insight into novel pharmacological targets for treating dyslipidemic patients.Journal of atherosclerosis and thrombosis 11/2014; 22(1). DOI:10.5551/jat.27227 · 2.77 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) is a genetic disorder characterized by elevated low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and premature cardiovascular disease, with a prevalence of approximately 1 in 200-500 for heterozygotes in North America and Europe. Monogenic FH is largely attributed to mutations in the LDLR, APOB, and PCSK9 genes. Differential diagnosis is critical to distinguish FH from conditions with phenotypically similar presentations to ensure appropriate therapeutic management and genetic counseling. Accurate diagnosis requires careful phenotyping based on clinical and biochemical presentation, validated by genetic testing. Recent investigations to discover additional genetic loci associated with extreme hypercholesterolemia using known FH families and population studies have met with limited success. Here, we provide a brief overview of the genetic determinants, differential diagnosis, genetic testing, and counseling of FH genetics.Current Atherosclerosis Reports 04/2015; 17(4):491. DOI:10.1007/s11883-015-0491-z · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aims of this study were (1) to determine whether the accumulation of coronary plaque burden assessed with coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) can predict future events and (2) to estimate the onset and progression of coronary atherosclerosis in patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). Consecutive 101 Japanese patients with heterozygous FH (men = 52, mean age 56 ± 16 years, mean low-density lipoprotein cholesterol 264 ± 58 mg/dl) who underwent 64-detector row CCTA without known coronary artery disease were retrospectively evaluated by assigning a score (0 to 5) to each of 17 coronary artery segments according to the Society of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography guidelines. Those scores were summed and subsequently natural log transformed. The periods to major adverse cardiac events (MACE) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models. During the follow-up period (median 941 days), 21 MACE had occurred. Receiver operating characteristic curve analyses identified a plaque burden score of 3.35 (raw score 28.5) as the optimal cutoff for predicting a worse prognosis. Multivariate Cox regression analysis identified the presence of a plaque score ≥3.35 as a significant independent predictor of MACE (hazard ratio = 3.65; 95% confidence interval 1.32 to 25.84, p <0.05). The regression equations were Y = 0.68X - 15.6 (r = 0.54, p <0.05) in male and Y = 0.74X - 24.8 (r = 0.69, p <0.05) in female patients with heterozygous FH. In conclusion, coronary plaque burden identified in a noninvasive, quantitative manner was significantly associated with future coronary events in Japanese patients with heterozygous FH and that coronary atherosclerosis may start to develop, on average, at age 23 and 34 years in male and female patients with heterozygous FH, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.The American Journal of Cardiology 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.amjcard.2014.12.034 · 3.43 Impact Factor